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Table 1 Studies investigating spontaneous viral clearance of HCV among PWID

From: Spontaneous viral clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HIV+ MSM): a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author (pub. yr.) Study period Location   N  
Recruitment method Recruitment site Definition of HCV clearance Quality rating Participants Clearers Proportion of clearance events 95 % CI
Aberle (2006) [34] 2003–2005 Austria Convenience sampling Clinical setting Methods not reported Low 11 3 27.3 1.0 - 53.6
Aitken (2008) [35] 2005–2008 Australia Convenience sampling Community-based setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 135 41 30.4 22.6 - 38.1
Alanko Blome (2014) [36] 1997–2005 Sweden Consecutive sampling Other setting 1 RNA- result High 150 48 32.0 24.5 - 39.5
Boodram (2011) [37] 2002–2006 United States Convenience sampling Community-based setting ≥1 RNA- result over 6 months High 113 38 33.6 24.9 - 42.3
Cournot (2004) [38] 1999–2004 France Consecutive sampling Clinical setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 178 27 15.2 9.9 - 20.4
Currie (2008) [39] 1997–2007 United States Convenience sampling Clinical and drug treatment settings ≥2 consecutive RNA- results Moderate 215 29 13.5 8.9 - 18.1
Dolan (2010) [40] 2005–2007 Australia Convenience sampling Correctional setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 16 6 37.5 13.8 - 61.2
Garten (2008) [41] 1999–2008 China Unspecified sampling Clinical setting 1 RNA- result Low 347 30 8.6 5.7 - 11.6
Gerlach (2003) [42] 1993–2003 Germany Consecutive sampling Clinical setting ≥1 RNA- result over 6 months High 15 5 33.3 9.5 - 57.2
Gjeruldsen (2003) [43] 1997–1999 Norway Consecutive sampling Clinical setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 50 8 16.0 5.8 - 26.2
Grebely (2007) [44] 1992–2005 Canada Convenience sampling Community-based setting ≥1 RNA- result High 431 91 21.1 17.3 - 25.0
Hallinan (2007) [45] 2002–2005 Australia Consecutive sampling Drug treatment setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 145 43 29.7 22.2 - 37.1
Hsieh (2014) [46] 2008–2010 China Unspecified sampling Correctional setting Methods not reported Low 513 99 19.3 15.9 - 22.7
Jauncey (2004) [47] 1992–2002 Australia Consecutive sampling Clinical setting ≥2 consecutive RNA- results High 57 24 42.1 29.3 - 54.9
Keating (2005) [48] 1997–2001 Ireland Consecutive sampling Drug treatment setting 2 consecutive RNA- results separated by at least 12 months High 496 191 38.5 34.2 - 42.8
Kielland (2013) [49] 1970–2008 Norway Consecutive sampling Drug treatment setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 523 195 37.3 33.1 - 41.4
Lidman (2009) [50] 2004–2006 Sweden Consecutive sampling Clinical setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 268 61 22.8 17.7 - 27.8
Mattsson (1993) [51] 1991–1993 Sweden Consecutive sampling Population-based setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 12 4 33.3 6.7 - 60.0
Meyer (2007) [52] 2002–2007 Germany Consecutive sampling Correctional setting ≥1 RNA- result Moderate 90 23 25.6 16.5 - 34.6
Osburn (2010) [53] 1997–2007 United States Convenience sampling Clinical, drug treatment, and community-based settings ≥1 RNA- result over 2 months Moderate 113 31 27.4 19.2 - 35.7
Ostapowicz (1999) [54] 1990–1999 Australia Unspecified sampling Clinical setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 142 2 1.4 −0.5 - 3.3
Page (2013) [55] 2000–2011 United States Convenience sampling Unspecified ≥2 RNA- results High 109 26 23.9 15.9 - 31.9
Poustchi (2011) [56] 2004–2008 Iran Other systematic Clinical and research setting 1 RNA- result after 6 months Moderate 28 4 14.3 1.3 - 27.2
Santantonio (2006) [57] 1999–2004 Italy Unspecified sampling Clinical setting ≥1 RNA- result w/in 6 months and ≥ 1 RNA- result for additional 6 months Moderate 71 31 43.7 32.1 - 55.2
Shah (2012) [58] 2004–2007 United States Convenience sampling Community-based setting 1 RNA- result Moderate 272 43 15.8 11.5 - 20.1
Thomas (2000) [59] 1988–1998 United States Convenience sampling Community-based organization 2 consecutive RNA- results separated by at least 5 months High 919 90 9.8 7.9 - 11.7
van den Berg (2011) [60] 1985–2005 The Netherlands Convenience sampling Clinical and drug treatment settings 2 consecutive RNA- results separated by at least 4 months Moderate 106 35 33.0 24.1 - 42.0
Wang (2007) [61] 2003–2005 United States Unspecified sampling Clinical and research setting 2 consecutive RNA- results High 44 8 18.2 6.8 - 29.6
  1. Fixed-effect meta-analysis estimate of the prevalence of spontaneous viral clearance (28 studies): 15.1 % (95 % CI 14.2, 16.0)
  2. Random-effects meta-analysis estimate of the prevalence of spontaneous viral clearance (28 studies): 24.3 % (95 % CI 19.5, 29.1)
  3. Heterogeneity: Q = 638.51, p < 0.001; I2= 95.8 %