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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients infected by carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli

From: Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem resistant gram-negative bacilli from infected pediatric population in tertiary - care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia: an increasing problem

Characteristic Total Pseudomonas aeruginosa Klebsiella pneumoniae Enterobacter cloacae
  No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Gender
 Male 33 (55.9) 16 (66.7) 13 (46.4) 4 (57.1)
 Female 26 (44.1) 8 (33.3) 15 (53.6) 3 (42.9)
Age (yrs)
  < 1 24 (40.7) 8 (33.3) 12 (42.8) 4 (57.1)
 1 a 4 13 (20.0) 6 (25.0) 7 (25.0) 0
 5 a 8 13 (20.0) 5 (20.8) 6 (21.4) 2 (28.6)
 9 a 12 6 (10.2) 3 (12.5) 2 (7.1) 1 (14.3)
  > 12 3 (5.1) 2 (8.3) 1 (3.6) 0
Hospital stay (days) Me (RI) 37 (16–76) 33 (15–70) 48 (25–77) 29 (10–33)
Hospital
 A 24 (40.7) 16 (66.7) 5 (17.9) 3 (42.9)
 B 16 (27.1) 2 (8.3) 11 (39.3) 3 (42.9)
 C 11 (18.6) 3 (12.5) 7 (25.0) 1 (14.3)
 D 7 (11.9) 3 (12.5) 4 (14.3) 0
 E 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.6) 0
History in past 6 months
 Hospitalization 44 (74.6) 15 (62.5) 25 (89.3) 4 (57.1)
 Surgery 37 (62.7) 15 (62.5) 19 (67.9) 3 (42.9)
 Stay in ICU 30 (50.8) 13 (54.2) 15 (53.6) 2 (28.6)
 Immunosuppressive therapy 16 (27.1) 8 (33.3) 6 (21.4) 2 (28.6)
 Dialysis 8 (13.56) 3 (12.5) 5 (17.9) 0
Antimicrobial use in past 56 (94.9) 23 (95.8) 27 (96.4) 6 (85.7)
 Carbapenems 22 (37.3) 7 (29.2) 13 (46.4) 2 (28.6)
 Piperacillin-tazobactam 22 (37.3) 3 (12.5) 15 (53.6) 4 (57.1)
 Glycopeptides 18 (30.5) 7 (29.2) 10 (35.7) 1 (14.3)
 1st-generation cephalosporin 17 (28.8) 6 (25.0) 8 (28.6) 3 (42.9)
 Aminoglycosides 13 (22.0) 5 (20.8) 8 (28.6) 0
 4th-generation cephalosporin 10 (16.9) 3 (12.5) 6 (21.4) 1 (14.3)
 Penicillin 9 (15.3) 5 (20.8) 3 (10.7) 1 (14.3)
 Fluoroquinolones 9 (15.3) 0 7 (25.0) 2 (28.6)
 3rd-generation cephalosporin 8 (13.6) 6 (25.0) 2 (7.1) 0
 TMP-SMX 7 (11.9) 2 (8.3) 5 (17.9) 0
 Macrolides 2 (3.4) 2 (8.3) 0 0
 Lincosamides 2 (3.4) 0 2 (7.1) 0
 Oxazolidinones 2 (3.4) 0 2 (7.1) 0
 2nd-generation cephalosporin 1 (1.7) 1 (4.2) 0 0
 Colistin 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.6) 0
 Monobactams 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.6) 0
 Lipopeptides 1 (1.7) 1 (4.2) 0 0
Infection type
 Health care associated 57 (96.6) 23 (95.8) 28 (100) 6 (85.7)
 Community associated 2 (3.4) 1 (4.2) 0 1 (14.3)
Hospitalization in ICU at time of isolate 25 (42.4) 10 (41.7) 12 (42.9) 3 (42.9)
Medical device 46 (78.0) 20 (83.3) 20 (71.4) 6 (85.7)
 Central venous catheter 29 (49.2) 12 (50.0) 14 (50.0) 3 (42.9)
 Enteral nutrition 28 (47.5) 12 (50.0) 12 (42.9) 4 (57.1)
 Urinary catheter 20 (33.9) 6 (25.0) 12 (42.9) 2 (28.6)
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 17 (28.8) 9 (37.5) 6 (21.4) 2 (28.6)
 Parenteral nutrition 8 (13.6) 3 (12.5) 5 (17.9) 0
Comorbidities 56 (94.9) 22 (91.7) 28 (100.0) 6 (85.7)
 Cardiovascular disease 12 (20.3) 4 (16.7) 7 (25.0) 1 (14.3)
 Neurologic disease 7 (11.9) 3 (12.5) 3 (10.7) 1 (14.3)
 Lung disease 6 (10.2) 3 (12.5) 1 (3.6) 2 (28.6)
 Chronic renal disease 5 (8.5) 4 (16.7) 1 (3.6) 0
 Transplant 5 (8.5) 2 (8.3) 2 (7.1) 1 (14.3)
 Trauma 3 (5.1) 1 (4.2) 2 (7.1) 0
 Burns 3 (5.1) 2 (8.3) 1 (3.6) 0
 Cancer 2 (3.4) 0 2 (7.1) 0
 Leukemia 2 (3.4) 1 (4.2) 1 (3.6) 0
 Cystic fibrosis 1 (1.7) 1 (4.2) 0 0
 Immunosuppression 1 (1.7) 1 (4.2) 0 0
Infection site
 Urinary tract infection (UTI) 18 (31) 5 (20.8) 10 (37.0) 3 (42.9)
 Catheter-associated UTI 9 (15.5) 3 (12.5) 6 (22.2) 0
 Ventilator-associated pneumonia 7 (12.2) 2 (8.3) 3 (11.1) 2 (28.6)
 Bloodstream 6 (10.3) 1 (4.2) 4 (14.8) 1 (14.3)
 Pneumonia 6 (10.3) 5 (20.8) 1 (3.7) 0
 Catheter-related bloodstream 3 (5.2) 2 (8.3) 1 (3.7) 0
 Skin and soft tissue 2 (3.4) 2 (8.3) 0 0
 Surgical site 1 (1.7) 0 0 1 (14.3)
 Intra-abdominal 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.7) 0
Empirical therapy 51 (86.4) 19 (79.2) 25 (89.3) 7 (100.0)
 Carbapenems 16 (27.1) 4 (16.7) 11 (39.3) 1 (14.3)
 Piperacilin-tazobactam 16 (27.1) 7 (29.2) 6 (21.4) 3 (42.9)
 Glycopeptides 13 (22) 6 (25.0) 5 (17.9) 2 (28.6)
 Aminoglycosides 13 (22) 2 (8.3) 9 (32.1) 2 (28.6)
 4th-generation cephalosporin 7 (11.9) 4 (16.7) 1 (3.6) 2 (28.6)
 Fluoroquinolones 3 (5.1) 1 (4.2) 2 (7.1) 0
 Monobactams 2 (3.4) 2 (8.3) 0 0
 3rd-generation cephalosporin 2 (3.4) 2 (8.3) 0 0
 1st-generation cephalosporin 1 (1.7) 0 (0) 1 (3.6) 0
 Penicillin 1 (1.7) 0 0 1 (14.3)
 Oxazolidinones 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.6) 0
 TMP-SMX 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.6) 0
 Colistin 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.6) 0
Targeted therapy 53 (89.8) 20 (83.3) 27 (96.4) 6 (85.7)
 Colistin 16 (27.1) 2 (8.3) 14 (50.0) 0
 Aminoglycosides 16 (27.1) 6 (25.0) 9 (32.1) 1 (14.3)
 Carbapenems 14 (23.7) 3 (12.5) 10 (35.7) 1 (14.3)
 Fluoroquinolones 10 (16.9) 6 (25.0) 3 (10.7) 1 (14.3)
 4th-generation cephalosporin 9 (15.3) 5 (20.8) 2 (7.1) 2 (28.6)
 Piperacilin-tazobactam 4 (6.8) 3 (12.5) 0 1 (14.3)
 Monobactams 2 (3.4) 1 (4.2) 1 (3.6) 0
 3rd-generation cephalosporin 2 (3.4) 2 (8.3) 0 0
 Glycopeptides 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.6) 0
 Oxazolidinones 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.6) 0
 TMP-SMX 1 (1.7) 0 1 (3.6) 0
Surgical Treatment 6 (10.2) 3 (12.5) 3 (10.7) 0
Outcome
 Cure 38 (69.1) 13 (59.1) 20 (76.9) 5 (71.4)
 Death 9 (16.4) 4 (18.2) 4 (15.4) 1 (14.3)
 Improvement 7 (12.7) 4 (18.2) 2 (7.7) 1 (14.3)
 Voluntary discharge 1 (1.8) 1 (4.5) 0 0