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Table 4 CDI-attributable LOS and CDI-related LOS

From: Cost of hospital management of Clostridium difficile infection in United States—a meta-analysis and modelling study

Reference Population Statistic CDI VS NO CDI LOS (Days) CDI LOS (Days)
Sample size Value SD or 95 % CI Sample size Value SD or 95 % CI
CO-CDI Inpatient days  
Arora 2011 [29] Horn’s index 1&2 Mean 33 15.1 16.2   33 15.1 16.2  
Arora 2011 [29] Horn’s index 3&4 Mean 52 33.4 33.3   52 33.4 33.3  
Kuntz 2012 [41] General outpatient Mean 1650 10.0 17.0   1650 10.0 17.0  
Kuntz 2012 [41] General inpatient Mean 1316 14.9 20.9   1316 14.9 20.9  
O’Brien 2007 [51] General Mean 4015 6.4    4015 6.4   
Pant 2013 [55] IBD Coefficient 12,610 2.1 1.4 2.8   2.1 1.4 2.8
Peery 2012 [56] General Median 110,553 5.0    110,553 5.0   
Quimbo 2013 [57] CDAD History Mean 1866 2.9 2.4 3.6 933 8.9 7.2 11.0
Sammons 2013 [59] Children Median 2060 5.6 4.5 6.6 2060 6.0 4.0a 13.0a
VeerLee 2012 [64] General Mean 68,686 7.1 7.0   68,686 7.1 7.0  
Weighted Mean   202,841 5.7    189,298 5.9   
HO-CDI inpatient days
Jiang 2013 [39] General Median 7264 8.0    1211 13.0   
Lipp 2012 [46] General Mean 3826 12.0    3826 12.0   
Pakyz 2011 [52] General Mean 30,071 11.1    10,857 21.1 21.0 21.2
Tabak 2013 [63] General Median 1020 2.3 0.9 3.8 255 12.0 9.0a 21.0a
Wang 2013 General Median 7,227,788 7.0    78,273 6.0 4.0a 11.0a
Campbell 2013 [31] Age > = 65 Mean 3064 3.0 1.4 4.6 3064 21.3 25.3  
Quimbo 2013 [57] Elderly Mean 34,732 7.8 7.5 8.1 10,933 18.8 18.2 19.5
Sammons 2013 [59] Children Median 2414 21.6 19.3 23.9 2414 23.0 12.0a 44.0a
Ananthakrishnan 2008 [28] IBD Median 80,170 3.0    2804 7.0   
Campbell 2013 [31] IBD Mean 84 3.0 −2.3 8.3 84 21.0 19.1  
Quimbo 2013 [57] IBD Mean 3618 3.3 2.9 3.7 1206 12.8 11.6 14.2
Nguyen 2008 [49] Crohn’s disease Mean 73,197 3.8    329 9.5   
Nguyen 2008 [49] Ulcerative colitis Mean 43,645 3.2    196 9.9   
Reed 2008 Digestive disorders Mean 2394 3.0    320 6.9 5.2  
Damle 2014 [14] Colorectal surgery Median 84,648 8.4 8.0 8.9 1266 13.0 18.0  
Lesperance 2011 [45] Elective colonic resection Mean 695,010 11.7    10,077 22.6   
Reed 2008 Major bowel procedures Mean 1035 10.0    45 20.9 11.3  
Wilson 2013 [66] Ileostomy Mean 13,462 11.6    217 18.7   
Campbell 2013 [31] Cabx exposure Mean 1641 7.8 5.7 9.9 1641 29.3 34.7  
Quimbo 2013 [57] Concomitant Antibiotic Use Mean 17,716 7.8 7.4 8.3 4429 17.9 17.0 18.9
Lagu 2014 [42] Sepsis Mean 4736 5.1 4.4 5.7 2368 19.2   
Reed 2008 Septicemia Mean 1211 5.0    92 10.7 7.6  
Egorova 2015 [35] Vascular surgery Median 450,251 6.7    4708 15.0 9.0a 25.0a
Flagg 2014 [36] Cardiac surgery Median 349,122 10.0    2580 21.0   
Glance 2011 [38] Trauma Median 149,656 10.0    768 16.0   
Lemaire 2015 [43] Cardiac surgery (CABG) Median 421,294 12.0     19.0   
Lemaire 2015 [43] Cardiac surgery (VS) Median 90,923 16.0     24.0   
Reed 2008 Congestive Heart Failure Mean 2542 5.0    35 9.7 7.0  
Reed 2008 OR procedure for infectious /parasitic diseases Mean 449 2.0    32 14.7 8.6  
Lawrence 2007 [44] ICU Median      76 14.9 1.0b 86.0b
Lawrence 2007 [44] ICU Median      76 38.3 4.0b 184.0b
Ali 2012 [27] Liver transplant Mean 193,714 10.1    5159 17.8   
Singal 2014 [60] Cirrhosis Mean 89,673 7.5    1444 13.9   
Quimbo 2013 [57] Immunocompromised Mean 14,344 8.4 7.9 9.0 3586 22.1 20.6 23.7
Campbell 2013 [31] Renal impairment Mean 3236 4.0 2.9 5.1 3236 22.7 28.2  
Quimbo 2013 [57] Renal impairment Mean 22,132 17.3 16.4 18.3 5533 37.5 35.5 39.6
Campbell 2013 [31] Cancer/BMT Mean 782 4.0 2.3 5.7 782 21.3 18.5  
Weighted Mean    10,120,864 7.8    168,892 13.5   
Both CO-CDI and HO-CDI inpatient cost
Song 2008 [61] General Median 1260 4.0    630 22.0   
Stewart 2011 [62] General Mean 82,414 5.1    41,207 13.0 14.0  
Nylund 2011 [50] Children, 1997 Median 3565 3.0    3565 5.0 3.0a 14.0a
Nylund 2011 [50] Children, 2000 Median 4356 4.0    4356 6.0 3.0a 15.0a
Nylund 2011 [50] Children, 2003 Median 5574 4.0    5574 6.0 3.0a 14.0a
Nylund 2011 [50] Children, 2006 Median 7779 4.0    7779 6.0 3.0a 15.0a
Sammons 2013 [59] Children Median 698,616 12.2 10.6 13.8 698,616 10.0 5.0a 23.0a
Bajaj 2010 [30] Cirrhosis Mean 83,230 7.1    1165 14.4   
Bajaj 2010 [30] CDI only Mean      58,220 12.7   
Pant 2013 [55] IBD Mean 12,610 2.2 1.5 2.8 447 8.2   
Dubberke 2008 [33] Non-surgical Median 24,691 6.0    439 10.0 2. 0b 87.0b
Lawrence 2007 [44] ICU stay Median 1872 3.1    76 6.1 1.0b 86.0b
Lawrence 2007 [44] Hospital stay Median 1872 14.4    76 24.5 2.0b 184.0b
Maltenfort 2013 [47] Arthroplasty Median 7.0    10.0 7.0a 17.0a
Zerey 2007 [67] Surgical Median 1,553,597 16.0 15.6 16.4 8113 18.0   
Pant 2012 [53] Organ transplant Median 49,198 9.6 9.3 9.9 63,651    
Pant 2012 (2) [54] Renal disease Coefficient 184,139 9.4 9.2 9.5 59,793    
Zilberberg 2009 [68] Prolonged acute mechanical ventilation Median 3370 6.1 4.9 7.4 3468 25.0 15.0a 40.0a
Weighted Mean   2,718,143 13.6    957,175 9.0   
  1. Abbreviations: CO-CDI community-onset CDI, HO-CDI Hospital-onset CDI, PAMV prolonged acute mechanical ventilation, Cabx concomitant antibiotic use, UC ulcerative colitis, CD Crohn’s disease, IBD inflammatory bowel disease, ICU intensive care unit, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, VS valvular surgery, BMT, PD primary diagnosis, SD secondary diagnosis, Calculated numbers were marked in Italic, attributable cost = cost of CDI group- cost of control non-CDI group
  2. aQ1-Q3
  3. bMin-Max