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Table 3 CDI-attributable costs/charges and CDI-related management costs/charges

From: Cost of hospital management of Clostridium difficile infection in United States—a meta-analysis and modelling study

Author, Year Population Outcome Statistic Incremental CDI-attributable cost/charges CDI-related cost/charges Note
Sample size Attributable cost 2015$ SD or 95 % CI Sample size CDI only cost 2015$ SD, 95 % CI or IQR
CO-CDI Inpatient Cost
Arora 2011 [29] General Cost Median 85 25,436    85 25,436    
O’Brien 2007 [51] General Cost Mean 4015 14,736    4015 14,736    
Peery 2012 [56] General Cost Median 110,553 7513    110,553 7513    
VeerLee 2012 [64] General Charges Mean 68,686 74,211 120,156   68,686 74,211 120,156   
Kuntz 2012 [41] General Cost Mean 1650 929 4800   1650 929 4800   Outpatient
Kuntz 2012 [41] General Cost Mean 1316 11,877 35,923   1316 11,877 35,923   Inpatient
O’Brien 2007 [51] General Cost Median 1036 7263    1036 7263    PD
VeerLee 2012 [64] General Charges Mean 17,413 27,463 40,484   17,413 27,463 40,484   PD
O’Brien 2007 [51] General Cost Mean 3327 16,946 34,655   3327 16,946    Rehospitalisation
Sammons 2013 [59] Children Cost Mean 2060 19,993 15,973 24,013 2060 19,993 15,973 24,013 Community onset
Ananthakrishnan 2008 [28] IBD Charges Median      44,400 16,864    CDI only
Pant 2013 [55] IBD Charges Mean 12,610 12,761 6868 18,655 447 50,050    CDI only
Bajaj 2010 [30] Cirrhosis Charges Mean      58,220 70,309    CDI only
Quimbo 2013 [57] CDI History Cost Mean 1866 29,662 20,798 42,300 933 51,863 36,641 73,411 CDI only
Total numbers/Weighted Mean    224,617 20,085    314,141 23,322    
HO-CDI Inpatient Cost
Fuller 2009 [37] General Cost Coefficient 1282 18,466 288   1282 18,466 288   Maryland, SD
Fuller 2009 [37] General Cost Coefficient 2478 29,980 271   2478 29,980 271   California, SD
Lipp 2012 [46] General Cost Mean 3826 32,050    3826 32,050    SD
McGlone 2012 [48] General Cost Median 54,046 10,016 8547 12,055 54,046 10,016 8547 12,055 SD Cost-hospital perspective-6 days LOS
McGlone 2012 [48] General Cost Median 54,046 11,116 9476 13,366 54,046 11,116 9476 13,366 10 days LOS
McGlone 2012 [48] General Cost Median 54,046 12,194 10,146 14,896 54,046 12,194 10,146 14,896 14 days LOS
O’Brien 2007 [51] General Cost Median 2656 6630    2656 6630    SD
VeerLee 2012 [64] General Charges Mean 51,273 90,202 146,767   51,273 90,202 146,767   SD
Jiang 2013 [39] General Cost Median 7264 11,689    1211 21,751    
Pakyz 2011 [52] General Cost Mean 30,071 31,180    10,857 64,732    Unadjusted
Pakyz 2011 [52] General Cost Median 30,071 24,456    10,857 39,598 22,400 88,537 Unadjusted
Pakyz 2011 [52] General Cost Mean 30,071 31,169    10,857 64,000 63,541 64,458 Adjusted
Tabak 2013 [63] General Cost Mean 1020 6893 1365 13,617 255 22,992 12,222 42,470  
Campbell 2013 [31] Age > = 65 Cost Mean 3064 7536 4302 10,771 3064 48,932 67,727   
Quimbo 2013 [57] Elderly Cost Mean 34,732 45,749 43,279 48,359 10,933 83,004 78,548 87,713  
Sammons 2013 [59] Children Cost Mean 2414 99,012 84,626 113,398 2414 99,012 84,626 113,398  
Ananthakrishnan 2008 [28] IBD Charges Median 80,170 7655    2804 24,623    
Ananthakrishnan 2008 [28] IBD Charges Mean 80,170 14,368 9467 19,270     
Campbell 2013 [31] IBD Cost Mean 84 1522 −14,932 11,888 84 40,194 44,845   
Quimbo 2013 [57] IBD cost Mean 3618 11,825 9851 14,181 1206 42,035 35,918 49,191  
Ananthakrishnan 2008 [28] Ulcerative colitis (UC) Charges Median      1843 26,750    
Nguyen 2008 [49] UC Charges Mean 43,645 14,749    196 43,381    Regression
Ananthakrishnan 2008 [28] Crohn's disease (CD) Charges Median      961 22,738    
Nguyen 2008 [49] CD Charges Mean 73,197 14,316    329 41,453    Regression
Reed 2008 Digestive disorders Charges Mean 2394 3670    320 9076 8068   
Damle 2014 [14] Colorectal surgery Cost Median 84,648 14,644 13,700 15,589 1266 21,309 38,218  
Kim 2012 [40] Cystectomy Cost Mean 10,856 25,014    153 57,379 50,204 64,554  
Lesperance 2011 [45] Elective colonic resection Charges Mean 695,010 84,899    10,077 158,401    
Reed 2008 Major bowel procedures Charges Mean 1035 25,476    45 47,064 31,302   
Wilson 2013 [66] Ileostomy Cost Mean 13,462 20,272    217 35,076    
Wilson 2013 [66] Ileostomy Cost Coefficient 13,462 17,513 14,106 20,921      
Egorova 2015 [35] Vascular surgery Cost Median 450,251 14,250    4708 36,847 22,912 62,903  
Flagg 2014 [36] Cardiac surgery Cost Median 5160 19,524    2580 213,661    Adjusted
Flagg 2014 [36] Cardiac surgery Cost Median 349,122 38,320    2580 72,730    Unadjusted
Lemaire 2015 [43] Cardiac surgery Cost Median 421,294 35,968    72,685    CABG
Lemaire 2015 [43] Cardiac surgery Cost Median 90,923 59,696    106,141    VS
Reed 2008 OR procedure for infectious /parasitic diseases Charges Mean 449 7462    32 35,524 25,498   
Glance 2011 [38] Trauma Cost Median 149,656 24,131    768 39,296    
Campbell 2013 [31] Cabx Cost Mean 1641 18,567 10,448 26,687 1641 78,948 99,739   
Quimbo 2013 [57] Cabx Cost Mean 17,716 38,413 35,195 41,922 4429 64,242 59,145 69,780  
Lagu 2014 [42] Sepsis Cost Median 4736 5792 4933 6665 2368 28,576 16,496 50,494  
Reed 2008 Septicaemia Charges Mean 1211 9141    92 22,378 20,591   
Campbell 2013 [31] Renal impairment Cost Mean 3236 5024 1118 8928 3236 50,586 72,180   
Quimbo 2013 [57] RI Cost Mean 22,132 122,318 111,315 134,405 5533 201,212 183,706 220,386  
Ali 2012 [27] Liver transplant Charges Mean 193,714 77,361    5159 158,038    
Singal 2014 [60] Cirrhosis Charges Mean 89,673 23,310    1444 47,401    
Reed 2008 Congestive Heart Failure Charges Mean 2542 7332    35 14,738 13,841   
Quimbo 2013 [57] Immunocompromised Cost Mean 14,344 33,632 30,151 37,516 3586 73,612 66,048 82,041  
Campbell 2013 [31] Cancer/BMT Cost Mean 782 687 −6480 7855 782 48,280 72,605   
Total numbers/Weighted mean    3,020,827 34,149    207,801 49,712    
Dubberke 2014 [2, 34, 71] Recurrent CDI Cost Mean 3958 12,163    3958 11,523 4728 26,167 Total cost difference
Dubberke 2014 [2, 34, 71] Recurrent CDI Cost Mean 3958 12,692 9752 15,919      Adjusted
Song 2008 [61] General Cost Median 1260 373    630 30,305    
Stewart 2011 [62] General Cost Mean 82,414 9670    41,207 26,790    
Wang 2011 [65] General Cost Median 7,227,788 4914    78,273 12,081    
Nylund 2011 [50] Children Charges Median 3565 15,937    3565 25,549    1997
Nylund 2011 [50] Children Charges Median 4356 20,750    4356 31,858    2000
Nylund 2011 [50] Children Charges Median 5574 23,627    5574 33,625 11,348 97,822 2003
Nylund 2011 [50] Children Charges Median 7779 23,362    7779 35,444 13,601 110,343 2006
Sammons 2013 [59] Children Cost Mean 698,616 51,304 44,746 57,969 698,616 51,304 44,746 57,969  
Dubberke 2008 [33] Non-surgical Cost Median 24,691 11,749    439 20,569    Raw data
Dubberke 2008 [33] Non-surgical Charges Median 24,691 23,961    439 42,154    Raw data
Dubberke 2008 [33] Non-surgical Cost Mean 24,691 3173 3078 3815      Linear regression
Dubberke 2008 [33] Non-surgical Cost Median 24,691 4190    342 18,842    Matched cases
Dubberke 2008 [33] Non-surgical Cost Mean 24,691 6520 4910 8381      Linear regression, 180 days
Dubberke 2008 [33] Non-surgical Cost Median 24,691 9284    342 35,414    Matched cases, 180 days
Zerey 2007 [67] Surgical Charges Median 1,553,597 59,424    8113 81,708    
Zerey 2007 [67] Surgical Charges Coefficient 1,553,597 94,402 91,589 97,216      Multivariate regression analysis
Zilberberg 2009 [68] Prolonged acute mechanical ventilation (PAMV) Cost Median 64,910 48,065    3468 190,188 107,689 333,290 Unadjusted
Zilberberg 2009 [68] PAMV Cost Mean 3370 12,616 9186 16,046 3468 91,039 71,306   Adjusted
Lawrence 2007 [44] ICU Cost Median 1872 7043    76 15,016    ICU stay
Lawrence 2007 [44] ICU Cost Median 1872 36,095    76 60,723    Entire hospital stay
Bajaj 2010 [30] Cirrhosis Charges Mean 83,230 49,460    1165 96,678    
Maltenfort 2013 [47] Arthroplasty Charges Median 43,648    84,877 52,498 142,827  
Pant 2012 [53] Organ transplant Charges Mean 49,198 77,246 73,412 81,080 63,651 42,054 69,033   
Pant 2012 (2) [54] Renal disease Charges Coefficient 184,139 69,679 68,338 71,020 59,793 87,982    
Pant 2013 [55] IBD Charges Mean 12,610 39,453 32,470 46,436      
Total numbers/Weighted Mean    10,012,927 14,403    981,005 45,421    
  1. Abbreviations: CO-CDI community-onset CDI, HO-CDI hospital-onset, PAMV prolonged acute mechanical ventilation, Cabx concomitant antibiotic use, UC ulcerative colitis, CD Crohn’s disease, IBD inflammatory bowel disease, ICU intensive care unit, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, VS valvular surgery, BMT, PD primary diagnosis, SD secondary diagnosis, Calculated numbers were marked in Italic, attributable cost = cost of CDI group- cost of control non-CDI group