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Table 1 A summary of cases of left-sided infective endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa reported during the last decade (2005–2015)

From: Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated left-sided Pseudomonas aeruginosa endocarditis: a case report and literature review

No. [ref] Year Age/Sex IVD Underlying disease or intervention Suspected source Infected valves Size and lesion Complications Treatment Antibiotics Outcome
Community-acquired IE
 1 [12] 2009 49/M Yes CKD IVD Prosthetic mitral/aortic 10 mm/5 mm Unknown Surgical BL + AG Survival
 2 [13] 2013 41/M No None Unknown Native mitral 20 mm n.d. Surgical BL + AG Survival
 3 [14] 2013 85/F No HT, DM Unknown Native mitral 4–8 mm AVB Medical BL + AG Death
Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated IE (NNHCA-IE)
 4 [15] 2005 56/F No DM Unknown Native mitral 17 mm Meningitis Medical BL + AG Survival
 5 [16] 2008 66/M No Cardiac surgery (AVR) Unknown Prosthetic mitral 11 × 12 mm Sub-endocardial abscess Surgical BL Death
 6 [11] 2011 71/M No Cardiac surgery (CABG), CAD, Urinary tract (cystoscopy) Native mitral 6 × 10 mm Cerebral embolism Surgical CPM + FQ Survival
 7 [11] 2011 65/M No Cardiac surgery (AD), DM Infected toe Prosthetic aortic n.d. Aortic root graft abscess Surgical BL + AG Survival
 8 [11] 2011 45/M No Cardiac surgery (AVR, MVR, TAP), HD Cardiac surgery Prosthetic mitral n.d. n.d. Medical n.d. Death
 9 [11] 2011 61/M No Cardiac surgery (e.g. AVR) Cardiac surgery Prosthetic aortic n.d. n.d. Surgical BL + AG Death
 10 [17] 2012 63/M No DM, CHF, Implanted pacemaker, CKD Unknown Native mitral 5 mm Aortic root abscess Surgical BL + AG Death
 11 [18] 2012 73/M No MM, HT, DM, Af, chemotherapy Infection of the lower limb Native mitral 10 mm n.d. Medical BL + FQ Death
 12 [19] 2012 49/F No DM, CAD, CKD (HD), HT Dialysis catheter Native aortic 20 mm n.d. Medical BL + AG Survival
 13a 2015 66/M No DM, BPH, HT, CAD Urinary tract Native aortic 6 × 12 mm Cerebral infarction Surgical CPM + AG Survival
Nosocomial healthcare-associated IE (NHCA-IE)
 14 [20] 2008 45/F No Severe burn Burn injury Native aortic n.d. None Medical n.d. Death
 15 [20] 2008 47/F No Severe burn Burn injury Native mitral 3 × 10 mm Cerebral and renal embolism Medical n.d. Death
 16 [20] 2008 31/M No Severe burn Burn injury Native mitral 3 × 5 mm Cerebral embolism Medical n.d. Death
 17 [21] 2009 69/M No Cardiac surgery (AVR) Unknown Prosthetic aortic n.d. Unknown Surgical FQ + AG Survival
 18 [22] 2012 35/M No Renal transplantation Surgery Native aortic 6 × 13 mm Splenic infarction Medical CPM + FQ Survival
 19 [23] 2014 83/M No HD, CHF, Malignancy Unknown Prosthetic aortic 8 mm Heart failure Medical CPM + COL Death
 20 [23] 2014 55/M No Immunosuppressive therapy Unknown Native aortic 14 mm Splenic infarction Surgical CPM + COL Death
 21 [24] 2014 60/M No Myocardial infarction Unknown Native mitral n.d. Splenomegaly Surgical BL + AG Survival
Uncertain cases
 22 [25] 2009 Unknown Yes Unknown IVD Prosthetic aortic 3 mm Yes Medical BL + AG Survival
 23 [25] 2009 Unknown Yes Unknown IVD Native mitral 4 mm Yes Medical BL + AG Survival
 24 [25] 2009 Unknown Yes Unknown IVD Native aortic 6 mm Yes Surgical BL + AG Survival
 25 [25] 2009 Unknown Yes Unknown IVD Prosthetic mitral 10 mm Yes Surgical BL + AG Survival
 26 [25] 2009 Unknown Yes Unknown IVD Native aortic 15 mm Yes Medical BL + FQ Death
  1. AD aortic dissection, AF atrial fibrillation, AG aminoglycoside, AVB atrioventricular block, AVR aortic valve replacement, BL anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam, BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CAD coronary artery disease, CHF chronic heart failure, CKD chronic kidney disease, COL colistin, CPM carbapenem, DM diabetes mellitus, FQ fluoroquinolone, HT hypertension, IE infective endocarditis, IVD intravenous drug use, MM multiple myeloma, MVR mitral valve replacement, SSS sick sinus syndrome, TAP tricuspid annuloplasty, n.d. not described
  2. Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated cases are those that occurred in outpatients who had received medical care prior to the onset of infection
  3. aCase No. 13 is the present case