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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of HAART-exposed crack cocaine users in Vancouver, Canada, stratified by optimal pharmacy refill adherence (n = 438)

From: Factors associated with optimal pharmacy refill adherence for antiretroviral medications and plasma HIV RNA non-detectability among HIV-positive crack cocaine users: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Total
(n = 438)
n (%)
≥95 % pharmacy refill adherence for antiretroviralsa p-value
Yes
240 (54.8 %)
No
198 (45.2 %)
Age (median, IQR) 44 (38–49) 45 (40–51) 42 (37–46) <0.001
Gender
 Male 293 (66.9 %) 171 (71.3 %) 122 (61.6 %) 0.033
 Female 145 (33.1 %) 69 (28.7 %) 76 (38.4 %) reference
Ancestry
 Caucasian 239 (54.6 %) 147 (61.3 %) 92 (46.5 %) 0.002
 Non-Caucasian 199 (45.4 %) 93 (38.7 %) 106 (53.5 %) reference
Education
  < Secondary education 228 (52.1 %) 116 (48.3 %) 112 (56.6 %) 0.069
  ≥ Secondary education 196 (44.7 %) 117 (48.8 %) 79 (39.9 %) reference
Homelessa
 Yes 129 (29.5 %) 57 (23.8 %) 72 (36.4 %) 0.003
 No 306 (69.9 %) 182 (75.8 %) 124 (62.6 %) reference
Crack cocaine smokinga
  ≥ Daily 175 (40.0 %) 78 (32.5 %) 97 (49.0 %) 0.001
  < Daily 263 (60.0 %) 162 (67.5 %) 101 (51.0 %) reference
Heroin usea
  ≥ Daily 48 (11.0 %) 19 (7.9 %) 29 (14.7 %) 0.024
  < Daily 389 (88.8 %) 221 (92.1 %) 168 (84.9 %) reference
Crystal methamphetamine usea,c
  ≥ Daily 9 (2.1 %) 5 (2.1 %) 4 (2.0 %) 1.000
  < Daily 428 (97.7 %) 235 (97.9 %) 193 (97.5 %) reference
Heavy alcohol use (≥5 drinks per day)a,c
 Yes 13 (3.0 %) 5 (2.1 %) 8 (4.0 %) 0.266
 No 425 (97.0 %) 235 (97.9 %) 190 (96.0 %) reference
Engagement in sex work or drug dealinga
 Yes 164 (37.4 %) 78 (32.5 %) 86 (43.4 %) 0.018
 No 270 (61.6 %) 160 (66.7 %) 110 (55.6 %) reference
Incarcerationa
 Yes 58 (13.2 %) 32 (13.3 %) 26 (13.1 %) 0.951
 No 380 (86.8 %) 208 (86.7 %) 172 (86.9 %) reference
HIV physician experienceb
 Previously treated <6 patients 48 (11.0 %) 25 (10.4 %) 23 (11.6 %) 0.397
 Previously treated ≥6 patients 340 (77.6 %) 199 (82.9 %) 141 (71.2 %) reference
CD4 cell counta (median, IQR) 300 (180–450) 340 (223.5–495) 235 (120–360) <0.001
Years since HAART initiationa (median, IQR) 5.7 (2.2–8.5) 4.9 (1.6–8.0) 6.9 (3.2–8.8) <0.001
Regimenb
 Single tablet per day 34 (7.8 %) 24 (10.0 %) 10 (5.1 %) 0.278
 2-3 tablets per day 121 (27.6 %) 76 (31.7 %) 45 (22.7 %) 0.723
  > 3 tablets per day 230 (52.5 %) 140 (58.3 %) 90 (45.5 %) reference
Participation in inpatient addiction treatmenta
 Yes 35 (8.0 %) 19 (7.9 %) 16 (8.1 %) 0.950
 No 403 (92.0 %) 221 (92.1 %) 182 (91.9 %) reference
Participation in outpatient detoxification or other outpatient addiction treatmenta,c
 Yes 5 (1.1 %) 4 (1.7 %) 1 (0.5 %) 0.384
 No 433 (98.9 %) 236 (98.3 %) 197 (99.5 %) reference
Seeing drug counsellors or participation in addiction-related peer support meetingsa
 Yes 43 (9.8 %) 31 (12.9 %) 12 (6.1 %) 0.016
 No 395 (90.2 %) 209 (87.1 %) 186 (93.9 %) reference
Restricted to dual crack cocaine and opioid users (n = 293)   
Participation in opioid substitution therapiesa
 Yes 186 (63.5 %) 115 (70.6 %) 71 (54.6 %) 0.005
 No 107 (36.5 %) 48 (29.4 %) 59 (45.4 %) reference
  1. HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy, CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range
  2. a denotes activities/events in the past 6 months
  3. b denotes at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation
  4. c p-values were derived from Fisher’s exact test
  5. Not all cells added up to 100 % due to some missing values