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Table 3 Crude and Adjusted a Incidence Rate Ratios for CVD Events by Exposure to Specific Antiretroviral Drugs

From: Traditional and HIV-specific risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults in Brazil: a retrospective cohort study

   Cumulative exposure Recent exposure
  N cIRR 95 % CI P aIRR 95 % CI P cIRR 95 % CI P aIRR 95 % CI P
ART 109 0.85 0.81–0.89 <0.001 0.79 0.75–0.83 <0.001
NRTI 109 0.85 0.81–0.89 <0.001 0.79 0.75–0.83 <0.001
Lamivudine 105 0.80 0.75–0.84 <0.001 0.76 0.72–0.81 <0.001 0.56 0.30–1.05 0.069 0.71 0.37–1.36 0.31
Zidovudine 93 0.86 0.81–0.91 <0.001 0.83 0.78–0.89 <0.001 1.27 0.86–1.89 0.23 1.34 0.90–2.00 0.15
Tenofovir 39 0.64 0.55–0.75 <0.001 0.60 0.51–0.71 <0.001 0.42 0.28–0.64 <0.001 0.37 0.24–0.56 <0.001
Stavudine 56 0.97 0.90–1.05 0.50 0.96 0.88–1.04 0.30 6.13 3.91–9.60 <0.001 5.28 3.18–8.75 <0.001
Didanosine 51 0.95 0.87–1.04 0.29 0.91 0.82–1.02 0.10 1.47 0.68–3.17 0.32 1.50 0.68–3.27 0.32
Emtricitabine 5 0.78 0.49–1.25 0.30 0.83 0.51–1.36 0.46 2.29 0.73–7.23 0.16 2.61 0.81–8.43 0.11
Abacavir 6 0.70 0.43–1.14 0.15 0.63 0.36–1.11 0.11 0.97 0.24–3.94 0.97 0.70 0.17–2.86 0.62
Zalcitabine 10 1.01 0.66–1.55 0.96 0.90 0.57–1.41 0.64
NNRTI 79 0.76 0.69–0.83 <0.001 0.77 0.70–0.85 <0.001 1.05 0.72–1.55 0.79 1.42 0.94–2.13 0.097
Efavirenz 67 0.75 0.67–0.84 <0.001 0.78 0.69–0.87 <0.001 0.90 0.60–1.34 0.59 1.25 0.81–1.93 0.31
Nevirapine 31 0.92 0.81–1.05 0.24 0.91 0.78–1.05 0.20 2.46 1.20–5.06 0.014 3.07 1.44–6.53 0.004
PI 79 0.92 0.88–0.96 0.001 0.88 0.83–0.93 <0.001 1.20 0.80–1.81 0.37 0.79 0.50–1.23 0.29
PI (without high dose RTV) 78 0.92 0.87–0.96 <0.001 0.87 0.83–0.92 <0.001 1.16 0.77–1.73 0.48 0.75 0.48–1.17 0.20
Ritonavir 35 0.91 0.78–1.05 0.20 0.84 0.71–1.01 0.061 4.05 2.05–8.03 <0.001 2.67 1.30–5.47 0.007
Lopinavir/
Ritonavir
41 0.86 0.76–0.96 0.009 0.81 0.71–0.92 0.001 1.20 0.79–1.84 0.40 0.90 0.58–1.39 0.64
Atazanavir + Ritonavir 13 0.60 0.45–0.79 <0.001 0.60 0.45–0.81 0.001 0.36 0.19–0.69 0.002 0.40 0.21–0.76 0.006
Darunavir + Ritonavir 6 0.71 0.50–1.02 0.067 0.65 0.45–0.95 0.027 0.64 0.28–1.46 0.29 0.47 0.20–1.09 0.08
Nelfinavir without booster 28 0.97 0.87–1.09 0.66 0.96 0.84–1.09 0.50 7.77 4.05–14.91 <0.001 5.32 2.60–10.88 <0.001
Indinavir without booster 39 1.05 0.95–1.16 0.35 1.00 0.89–1.11 0.98 11.56 5.84–22.90 <0.001 10.22 4.63–22.53 <0.001
Saquinavir + Ritonavir 4 0.55 0.15–2.0 0.37 0.47 0.11–2.12 0.33 1.63 0.23–11.68 0.63 1.05 0.14–7.58 0.97
Saquinavir without booster 24 0.90 0.71–1.13 0.35 0.82 0.62–1.08 0.15 3.96 1.46–10.76 0.007 2.07 0.71–6.00 0.18
Amprenavir + Ritonavir 3 1.55 0.82–2.93 0.18 1.37 0.66–2.85 0.39
Amprenavir without booster 4 0.85 0.42–1.73 0.66 0.64 0.28–1.49 0.30 9.62 1.34–68.95 0.024 3.88 0.52–28.89 0.19
Integrase Inhibitor 4 0.82 0.53–1.28 0.39 0.78 0.50–1.22 0.28 0.62 0.23–1.69 0.35 0.54 0.20–1.49 0.24
  1. Abbreviations: CVD cardiovascular disease, N number of participants with a CVD-related event exposed to the specific agent, cIRR crude incidence rate ratio, CI confidence interval, P p-value, ART combined antiretroviral therapy, NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, NNRTI non-NRTI, PI protease inhibitor, RTV ritonavir
  2. aFinal model was adjusted for specific ART agent or class; age ≥40 years; male sex; non-white race; nadir CD4+ T lymphocyte count ≤50 cells/mm3; virologic suppression; history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or CVD; and calendar year of cohort entry