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Table 5 Risk factors of contracting illness while traveling / on arrival among 460 travelers. Values are given for proportions of ill travelers with a given risk factor, odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals, and p-values in a bivariable analysis

From: Travelers’ health problems and behavior: prospective study with post-travel follow-up

  Contracted illness a % Odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) p-value
Total (missing data = 1) 79    
Sex (missing data = 0)     
 Male 75 1.0   
 Female 81 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 0.079*
Age group (missing data = 0)     <0.001*
 0–17 66 1.0   
 18–35 89 4.3 (1.9–9.9) 0.001
 36–55 73 1.4 (0.6–3.2) 0.380
 56– 71 1.3 (0.6–2.8) 0.582
Geographic region (missing data = 0)     <0.001*
 Europe, Northern America 20 1.0   
 Latin America and the Caribbean 66 7.7 (1.9–32.0) 0.005
 Northern Africa, Western Asia 67 8.0 (1.4–45.8) 0.019
 Southern Africa 62 6.4 (1.4–28.4) 0.015
 Western Africa, Middle Africa 79 14.9 (3.8–58.5) <0.001
 Eastern Africa 84 21.6 (5.4–85.8) <0.001
 Eastern Asia, Central Asia 56 5.0 (0.8–31.0) 0.084
 South-Eastern Asia 87 26.6 (6.7–106.1) <0.001
 Southern Asia 91 41.3 (9.1–188.5) <0.001
Duration of travel, days (missing data = 0)     <0.001*
 1–7 52 1.0   
 8–29 77 3.0 (1.4–6.7) 0.006
 30–160 94 14.4 (4.7–44.1) <0.001
Purpose of travel (missing data = 1)     0.813
 Vacation 78 1.0   
 Business 82 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 0.636
 Other/multiple b 82 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 0.636
Accommodation (missing data = 11) c     <0.001*
 Hotel 68 1.0   
 Home of a local 87 3.2 (1.5–6.8) 0.003
 Guest house 87 3.1 (1.8–5.2) <0.001
Location (missing data = 22) c     
 City 71 1.0   
 Countryside/jungle 83 2.0 (1.3–3.3) 0.003*
Used other than bottled water (missing data = 3) c 76 0.8 (0.3–2.2) 0.710
Ate uncooked meat/fish (missing data = 4) 66 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.006*
Ate salads (missing data = 26) 78 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.192
Diet (missing data = 159)     
 Omnivore 82 1.0   
 Vegetarian 89 1.8 (0.5–6.2) 0.353
Used milk as part of diet (missing data = 161) 83 1.0 (0.1–8.5) 1.000e
Site of meals (missing data = 12) c     
 Restaurant more than 50 % of meals 79 1.0   
 Own household and sometimes elsewhere 79 1.0 (0.5–1.8) 0.996
Alcohol consumption (missing data = 67) d     
 0–2 units per day 81 1.0   
 3– units per day 74 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0.102
Did not always use utensils (missing data = 23) 85 1.7 (1.0–3.0) 0.058*
Did not wash hands always/often (missing data = 13) 72 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 0.138
No WC as a toilet (missing data = 7) 85 1.6 (0.8–3.2) 0.159
Had fresh water contact (missing data = 160) 84 1.7 (0.9–3.1) 0.109
Walking barefoot often/sometimes (missing data = 7) 79 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.990
Unprotected sex with local (missing data = 27) 100 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 0.213e
Other close contact with local (missing data = 26) 88 2.2 (1.1–4.4) 0.030*
Had insect stings (missing data = 22) 84 3.1 (1.9–5.1) <0.001*
  1. a Symptoms started abroad or on return
  2. b 14 (3 %) reported two or more purposes of travel
  3. c Categorized according to lowest standard
  4. d Missing data for children under 16 years was replaced with 0 alcohol servings per day
  5. e Fisher's exact test used
  6. * Factors with P-value <0.1 chosen to multivariable model