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Table 5 Risk factors for late-appearing anaemia after 2 weeks of starting treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine showing the crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (CI)

From: Clinical illness and outcomes in Nigerian children with late-appearing anaemia after artemisinin-based combination treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria

Variable Total no. No. with late-appearing anaemia OR (95 % CI) P value AOR (95 % CI) P value
Gender       
 Female 270 37 1    
 Male 339 47 1.0(0.6–1.6) 0.95 - -
Age (years)       
  ≥ 3 556 65 1   1  
  < 3 53 19 4.2(2.3–7.8) 0.000004 2.6 (1.3–5.2) 0.005
Duration of illness (days)       
  ≤ 2 days 200 28 1    
  > 2 days 343 53 1.1(0.7–1.8) 0.81 - -
Enrolment body temperature       
  ≤ 37.4 °C 164 19 1    
  > 37.4 °C 445 65 1.3 (0.8–2.3) 0.41 - -
Fever on day 1       
 Absent 568 70 1   1  
 Present 41 14 3.7(1.8–7.4) 0.0002 3.8 (1.8–8.2) <0.0001
Haematocrit at presentation (day 0)       
  ≥ 25 % 554 65 1   1  
  < 25 % 55 19 4.0(2.2–7.3) 0.000008 2.2(1.3–3.7) 0.003
Haematocrit on day1       
  ≥ 30 % 421 40 1   1  
  < 30 % 188 44 2.9(1.8–4.7) 0.000009 2.1(1.0–4.3) 0.04
Parasitaemia (μL−1)       
  ≤ 50,000 320 34 1    
  > 50,000 289 50 0.7(0.5–1.2) 0.21   
Parasite reduction ratio on day1       
  ≤ 10,000 443 57 1    
  > 10,000 166 27 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.34 - -
Parasite reduction ratio on day2       
 ≤ 10,000 532 67 1   1  
  > 10,000 77 17 2.0 (1.1–3.6) 0.038 2.1(1.1–3.9) 0.03
Liver enlargement       
 Absent 511 70 1    
 Present 98 14 1.0(0.6–1.9) 0.98   
Spleen enlargement       
 Absent 535 67 1   1  
 Present 64 17 2.4(1.3–4.3) 0.008 2.0(1.1–3.9) <0.0001
Parasite clearance time       
  < 1 day 506 73 1    
  > 1 day 103 11 0.7(0.4–1.4) 0.40 - -
Fever clearance time       
  < 1 day 574 75 1    
  > 1 day 35 9 1.9(0.9–4.3) 0.13   
FIH/1000 asexual parasite cpba       
  ≥ 0.05 133 28 1    
  < 0.05 258 39 0.7(0.4–1.2) 0.27   
Year of enrolment       
  < 2010 242 33 1    
  ≥ 2010 367 51 1.0(0.6–1.6) 0.93   
  1. acpb, cleared from peripheral blood