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Table 2 Comparison of Bacteria Between Conventional Cultivation Methods and 16S rDNA Sequencing Analysis in the Bacterial Infection Group

From: Clinical impact of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus on bacterial pneumonia: cultivation and 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

Age Pneumonia type Sputum BALF Prior antibiotics Treatments Clinical outcome
Culture Culture Clone library analysis
Predominant phylotype, % S. aureus
GROUP A         
 1 72 HAP not analyzed MRSA Staphylococcus aureus 97.5 % 97.5 % ABK VCM ineffective
 2 70 VAP not analyzed MRSA Staphylococcus aureus 91.8 % 91.8 % None TEIC effective
 3 78 HAP MRSA MRSA Staphylococcus aureus 91.0 % 91.0 % None ABK effective
 4 77 HCAP MRSA MRSA Staphylococcus aureus 53.1 % 51.8 % IPM/CS MINO BIPM, PZFX + CLDM, CZOP + ABK ineffective
 5 65 HAP not analyzed MRSA Staphylococcus aureus 50.0 % 50.0 % MEPM MEPM+VCM effective
 6 76 HAP not analyzed MRSA Corynebacterium simulans 41.9 % 8.1 % None VCM ineffective
 7 61 HAP S. pneumoniae MRSA MRSA Haemophilus influenzae 35.3 % 3.5 % MEPM MEPM + VCM effective
 8 87 HAP MRSA MRSA Corynebacterium spp. 97.8 % 2.2 % SBT/ABPC TEIC effective
 9 66 HAP not analyzed H. influenzae, MRSA Haemophilus influenzae 84.0 % 1.1 % None IPM/CS + VCM SBT/ABPC effective
 10 82 VAP not analyzed MRSA P. aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa 94.6 % 0.0 % IPM/CS PZFX+VCM ineffective
 11 61 HCAP not analyzed MRSA, Aspergillus fumigatus Streptococcus spp. 90.7 % 0.0 % DRPM DPPM PZFX + CLDM/L-AMB + VCM/TAZ/PIPC ineffective
 12 91 HAP MRSA MRSA Streptococcus oralis 58.5 % 0.0 % MEPM LZD effective
 13 87 HAP not analyzed MRSA, Neisseria Neisseria perflava 95.5 % 0.0 % TEIC TEIC, AMK effective
GROUP B         
 14 81 HAP not analyzed MRSA Staphylococcus aureus 100 % 100.0 % None DRPM effective
 15 21 VAP not analyzed MRSA Staphylococcus aureus 88.6 % 88.6 % None MEPM effective
 16 73 CAP not analyzed MRSA Staphylococcus aureus 60.8 % 60.8 % None GRX effective
 17 76 HCAP MRSA P. aeruginosa MSSA Staphylococcus aureus 57.1 % 57.1 % None TAZ/PIPC ineffective
 18 81 HCAP MRSA P. aeruginosa no growth Staphylococcus aureus 55.4 % 55.4 % None CZOP + CLDM effective
 19 62 CAP MRSA MRSA Staphylococcus aureus 48.7 % 48.7 % FQ CPFX effective
 20 80 HAP MRSA MRSA Streptococcus intermedius 56.5 % 40.6 % None DRPM effective
 21 76 HAP MRSA MRSA Corynebacterium spp. 25.3 % 18.4 % TAZ/PIPC SBT/ABPC effective
 22 22 HAP not analyzed MRSA, A. baumannii Neisseria elongata 81.2 % 15.1 % TEIC IPM/CS effective
 23 81 HCAP MRSA MRSA Streptococcus spp. 46.7 % 12.0 % None LVFX effective
 24 85 HAP not analyzed MRSA Streptococcus oralis/mitis 37.3 % 8.0 % CPFX LVFX effective
 25 83 HCAP MRSA, E. coli MRSA, E. coli Moraxella catarrhalis 69.2 % 7.7 % None TAZ/PIPC effective
 26 76 HAP not analyzed K. pneumoniae, MRSA, Proteus mirabilis Corynebacterium simulans 58.4 % 1.3 % None TAZ/PIPC effective
 27 85 HAP MRSA MRSA Fusobacterium nucleatum 55.7 % 0.0 % None LVFX effective
 28 61 HCAP not analyzed MRSA, B. cepacia, F. mortiferum Rothia spp. 45.2 % 0.0 % None MEPM effective
 29 45 HAP not analyzed S. maltophilia, MRSA Enterococcus hirae 25.8 % 0.0 % None MEPM effective
 30 74 HCAP P. aeruginosa MRSA P. aeruginosa, MRSA Streptococcus salivarius 43.0 % 0.0 % None MEPM effective
 31 80 HCAP not analyzed MRSA Streptococcus spp. 98.9 % 0.0 % Unknown LVFX effective
 32 80 HCAP not analyzed MRSA Streptococcus spp. 97.4 % 0.0 % Unknown LVFX effective
 33 98 HCAP MRSA not analyzed Streptococcus spp. 78.8 % 0.0 % Unknown TAZ/PIPC effective
 34 80 HCAP MRSA oral bacteria Neisseria spp. 55.0 % 0.0 % LVFX MEPM effective
 35 82 HCAP not analyzed P. aeruginosa, MRSA, Streptococcus Streptococcus oralis/mitis 70.7 % 0.0 % Unknown SBT/ABPC effective
 36 64 HCAP not analyzed P. aeruginosa, MRSA Pseudomonas aeruginosa 97.4 % 0.0 % None TAZ/PIPC + LVFX effective
 37 86 HCAP MRSA K. pneumoniae, MRSA Lactobacillus spp. 51.1 % 0.0 % None TAZ/PIPC effective
 38 80 HCAP E. coli, MRSA oral bacteria Streptococcus spp. 45.2 % 0.0 % None TAZ/PIPC effective
 39 93 HCAP not analyzed MRSA, oral bacteria Corynebacterium spp. 94.3 % 0.0 % None LVFX effective
 40 81 HAP not analyzed MRSA, E. coli Haemophilus influenzae 34.5 % 0.0 % None TAZ/PIPC effective
 41 73 HAP not analyzed Enterobacter cloacae, MRSA Enterobacter asburiae 70.0 % 0.0 % None DRPM effective
 42 74 HAP MRSA Corynebacterium, MRSA Corynebacterium simulans 98.9 % 0.0 % TAZ/PIPC TAZ/PIPC effective
  1. Abbreviations: CAP community-acquired pneumonia, healthcare-associated pneumonia, HAP hospital-acquired pneumonia, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, BALF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, ABK arbekacin, VCM vancomycin, TEIC teicoplanin, LZD linezolid, IPM/CS imipenem/cilastatin, MEPM meropenem, DRPM doripenem, BIPM biapenem, CZOP cefozopran, SBT/ABPC sulbactam/ampicillin, TAZ/PIPC tazobactam/piperacillin, CPFX ciprofloxacin, LVFX levofloxacin, GRNX garenoxacin, MINO minomycin, CLDM clindamycin, L-AMB liposomal amphotericin B, NA not applicable