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Table 1 Predictors for poor outcome among 51 MERS CoV cases in KSA 2014

From: Treatment outcomes for patients with Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) infection at a coronavirus referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

  Total Survival Death P value
Demographics and Epidemiology     
Age < = 30 7 (13.7 %) 6 (85.7 %) 1 (14.29 %) 0.187
Age 31-60 32 (62.8 %) 22 (64.7 %) 12 (35.3 %)  
Age >60 10 (19.6 %) 4 (40 %) 6 (60 %)  
Gender - male 40 (78.4 %) 22(55 %) 18(45 %) 0.037
Known MERS exposure 21 (41.2 %) 12 (57.1 %) 9 (42.9 %) 0.563
Healthcare worker 12 (23.5 %) 11 (91.7 %) 1 (8.3 %) 0.020
Umrah patient 2 (3.9 %) 2 (100 %) 0 (0 %) 0.523
Co-morbid conditions     
Diabetes 17 (33.3 %) 9 (52.9 %) 8 (47.1 %) 0.365
Hypertension 25 (49 %) 10 (40 %) 15 (60 %) 0.001
End stage renal disease 14 (27.5 %) 6 (42.9 %) 8 (57.1 %) 0.106
Coronary artery disease 8 (15.7 %) 3 (37.5 %) 5 (62.5 %) 0.131
Immunosuppression 6 (11.8 %) 5 (83.3 %) 1 (16.7 %) 0.392
Signs and Symptoms     
Runny nose 6 (11.8 %) 5 (83.3 %) 1 (16.67 %) 0.392
Cough 41(80.4 %) 26 (63.4 %) 15(36.6 %) 1.000
Diarrhea 13 (25.5 %) 11 (84.6 %) 2 (15.4 %) 0.096
Vomiting 12 (23.5 %) 11 (91.7 %) 1 (8.3 %) 0.020
Sore throat 5 (9.8 %) 3 (60 %) 2 (40 %) 1.000
Abnormal lung exam 20 (39.2 %) 17 (85 %) 3 (15 %) 0.016
Subjective fever 49 (96.1 %) 30 (61.2 %) 19 (38.8 %) 0.523
Temperature >38 Celsius 25 (49 %) 13 (52 %) 12 (48 %) 0.153
Respiratory rate >16 39 (76.5 %) 21 (53.9 %) 18 (46.2 %) 0.020
Blood pressure < 90/60 mm Hg 8 (15.7 %) 0 (0 %) 8 (100 %) 0.000
Oxygen saturation < 90 % 17 (33.3 %) 4 (23.5 %) 13 (76.5 %) 0.000
Laboratory findings     
Hemoglobin < 10 g/dL 14 (27.5 %) 4 (28.6 %) 10 (71.4 %) 0.003
White Blood cell count < 5,000 cells/mm3 28 (54.9 %) 21 (75 %) 7 (25 %) 0.080
White Blood cell count > 10,000 cells/mm3 9 (17.6 %) 2 (22.2 %) 7 (77.8 %) 0.009
Platelets < 150,000/mm3 15 (29.4 %) 9 (60 %) 6 (40 %) 1.000
ALT > 50 U/L 23 (45.1 %) 14 (61 %) 9 (39.1 %) 1.000
AST > 40 U/L 35 (68.6 %) 18 (51.4 %) 17 (48.6 %) 0.015
LDH > 300 U/L 32 (62.7 %) 18 (56.3 %) 14 (43.8 %) 0.247
Creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL 21 (41.2 %) 8 (38.1 %) 13 (61.9 %) 0.003
CK > 200 U/L 24 (47.1 %) 13 (54.2 %) 11 (45.8 %) 0.261
Potassium > 4.5 mmol/L 17 (33.3 %) 8 (47.1 %) 9 (52.9 %) 0.131
Negative repeat PCR swab 31 (60.8 %) 30 (96.8 %) 1 (3.23 %) 0.000
Radiology     
CXR – Right upper lobe infiltrate 17 (33.3 %) 5 (29.4 %) 12 (70.6 %) 0.001
CXR – Right lower lobe infiltrate 32 (62.7 %) 13 (40.6 %) 19 (59.4 %) 0.000
CXR – Left upper lobe infiltrate 19 (37.3 %) 7 (36.8 %) 12 (63.2 %) 0.006
CXR – Left lower lobe infiltrate 31 (60.8 %) 13 (41.9 %) 18 (58.1 %) 0.000
Treatments administered     
Interferon beta 23 (45.1 %) 18 (78.3 %) 5 (21.7 %) 0.047
Interferon alpha 8 (15.7 %) 6 (75 %) 2 (25 %) 0.694
Any interferon 31 (60.8 %) 24 (77.4 %) 7 (22.6 %) 0.009
Ribavirin 19 (37.5 %) 13 (68.4 %) 6 (13.6 %) 0.564
Antibiotics 42 (82.4 %) 26 (61.9 %) 16 (38.1 %) 1.000
Hydrocortisone 5 (9.8 %) 2 (40 %) 3 (60 %) 0.348
Mycophenolate mofetil 8 (15.7 %) 8 (100 %) 0 (0 %) 0.019
ICU stay during admission 19 (37.3 %) 0 (0 %) 19 (100 %) 0.000
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation 10 (19.6 %) 0 (0 %) 10 (100 %) 0.000