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Table 5 Determinants for a positive attitude (professionals) or positive intention (parents) regarding universal varicella vaccination from univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis

From: Negative attitude and low intention to vaccinate universally against varicella among public health professionals and parents in the Netherlands: two internet surveys

  Professionals (RPHS & CHC combined) Parents
Potential determinants N Outcomea: positive attitude % [95 % CI] Crude OR [95 % CI] Adjusted OR [95 % CI] N Outcomea: positive intention % [95 % CI] Crude OR [95 % CI] Adjusted OR [95 % CI]
Sex         
 Male 40 22.5 [12.3–37.5] Reference Reference 90 27.8 [19.6–37.8] Reference Reference
 Female 364 20.6 [16.8–25.1] 0.9 [0.4–2.0] 1.7 [0.6–4.6] 401 28.2 [24.0–32.8] 1.0 [0.6–1.7] 1.0 [0.5–2.0]
Age         
 Younger than 30 years 38 28.9 [17.0–44.8] Reference Reference 94 23.4 [16.0–32.9] Reference Reference
 30–34 years 48 29.2 [18.2–43.2] 1.0 [0.4–2.6] 0.7 [0.2–2.2] 189 35.4 [29.0–42.5] 1.8 [1.0–3.2]b 1.8 [0.8–3.8]
 35–39 years 40 25.0 [14.2–40.2] 0.8 [0.3–2.2] 0.8 [0.2–2.9] 148 20.3 [14.6–27.5] 0.8 [0.4–1.6] 1.1 [0.5–2.6]
 40 years or older 278 17.6 [13.6–22.5] 0.5 [0.2–1.1] 0.4 [0.1–1.0] 60 31.7 [21.3–44.2] 1.5 [0.7–3.1] 1.2 [0.4–3.4]
Profession         
 Medical doctor 151 27.8 [21.3–35.4] Reference Reference -    
 Nurse 253 16.6 [12.5–21.7] 0.5 [0.3–0.8]b 1.0 [0.5–1.9] -    
Education level         
 High      274 27.0 [22.1–32.6] Reference Reference
 Medium      166 27.1 [20.9–34.3] 1.0 [0.7–1.6] 0.9 [0.5–1.7]
 Low      51 37.3 [25.3–51.0] 1.6 [0.9–3.0] 1.0 [0.4–2.4]
Knowledge about VZV (max. 5 points)         
 Limited knowledge (0–2 points) 56 17.9 [10.0–29.8] Reference Reference 177 35.0 [28.4–42.3] Reference Reference
 Moderate knowledge (3 points) 113 18.6 [12.5–26.7] 1.1 [0.5–2.4] 1.0 [0.4–2.9] 209 23.0 [17.8–29.1] 0.6 [0.4–0.9]b 0.9 [0.5–1.6]
 Good knowledge (4–5 points) 235 22.6 [17.7–28.3] 1.3 [0.6–2.8] 1.1 [0.4–2.8] 105 26.7 [19.1–35.8] 0.7 [0.4–1.1] 1.4 [0.7–3.0]
Beliefs about the disease varicella and varicella vaccination         
Varicella generally has a mild disease course in healthy children         
 No agreement 12 58.3 [32.0–80.7] Reference Reference 22 54.5 [34.7–73.1] Reference Reference
 Neutral 24 29.2 [14.9–49.2] 0.3 [0.1–1.3] 0.2 [0.03–1.3] 76 51.3 [40.3–62.2] 0.9 [0.3–2.3] 0.7 [0.2–2.5]
 Agreement 368 19.0 [15.3–23.3] 0.2 [0.1–0.5]b 0.2 [0.04–0.9]b 393 22.1 [18.3–26.5] 0.2 [0.1–0.6]b 0.5 [0.1–1.4]
Varicella can cause serious complications         
 No agreement 42 16.7 [8.3–30.6] Reference Reference 66 12.1 [6.3–22.1] Reference Reference
 Neutral 98 8.2 [4.2–15.3] 0.4 [0.2–1.3] 0.6 [0.2–2.4] 218 20.2 [15.4–26.0] 1.8 [0.8–4.1] 1.0 [0.4–2.7]
 Agreement 264 26.1 [21.2–31.8] 1.8 [0.8–4.2] 1.5 [0.5–4.8] 207 41.5 [35.0–48.4] 5.2 [2.3–11.3]b 1.3 [0.4–3.5]
Varicella is a disease one could better have been through         
 No agreement 22 59.1 [38.7–76.7] Reference Reference 46 60.9 [46.5–73.6] Reference Reference
 Neutral 73 23.3 [15.1–34.2] 0.2 [0.1–0.6]b 0.3 [0.1–1.3] 126 41.3 [33.1–50.0] 0.5 [0.2–0.9]b 0.5 [0.2–1.3]
 Agreement 309 17.5 [13.6–22.1] 0.1 [0.1–0.4]b 0.3 [0.1–1.0] 319 18.2 [14.3–22.8] 0.1 [0.1–0.3]b 0.4 [0.1–0.9]b
I am worried about the side effects of varicella vaccination         
 No agreement 163 30.1 [23.5–37.5] Reference Reference 115 27.0 [19.7–35.7] Reference Reference
 Neutral 190 15.3 [10.8–21.1] 0.4 [0.3–0.7]b 0.6 [0.3–1.1] 196 29.1 [23.2–35.8] 1.1 [0.7–1.9] 0.5 [0.2–1.1]
 Agreement 51 11.8 [5.5–23.4] 0.3 [0.1–0.8]b 0.5 [0.1–1.4] 180 27.8 [21.8–34.7] 1.0 [0.6–1.8] 0.7 [0.3–1.5]
I think varicella is a disease serious enough to vaccinate against         
 No agreement 255 9.8 [6.7–14.1] Reference Reference 289 8.3 [5.6–12.1] Reference Reference
 Neutral 107 28.0 [20.4–37.2] 3.6 [2.0–6.5]b 2.4 [1.2–4.7]b 102 32.4 [24.1–41.9] 5.3 [2.9–9.5]b 4.9 [2.3–10.6]b
 Agreement 42 69.0 [54.0–80.9] 20.5 [9.5–44.5]b 9.9 [3.9–24.9]b 100 81.0 [72.2–87.5] 47.1 [24.5–90.3]b 26.2 [10.8–63.4]b
I think most parents will vaccinate their child against varicella         
 No agreement 225 9.8 [6.5–14.4] Reference Reference 182 9.9 [6.3–15.1] Reference Reference
 Neutral 96 26.0 [18.3–35.6] 3.2 [1.7–6.1]b 2.3 [1.1–4.9]b 184 24.5 [18.8–31.1] 3.0 [1.6–5.3]b 1.1 [0.5–2.4]
 Agreement 83 44.6 [34.4–55.3] 7.4 [4.0–13.8]b 4.2 [2.0–8.6]b 125 60.0 [51.2–68.2] 13.7 [7.5–25.0]b 2.0 [0.8–4.6]
Total 404 20.8 [17.1–25.0]    491 28.1 [24.3–32.2]   
  1. RPHS = regional public health service; CHC = child health clinic; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval
  2. aOutcome professionals: attitude towards universal childhood varicella vaccination (1 = positive (all children) or 0 = neutral or negative (nobody or high-risk groups only) attitude); outcome parents: intention regarding vaccination own child against varicella within the National Immunisation Programme (free of charge; 1 = positive or 0 = neutral or negative intention)
  3. bStatistically significant (p < 0.05) association with the outcome