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Table 2 Univariable comparison between the group that did not develop any bacteriuria at all and the group that developed respectively only ASB, cystitis or AGPN

From: The impact of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis on the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections among renal allograft recipients: a retrospective before-after study

  No bacteriuria versus only ASB No bacteriuria versus cystitis No bacteriuria versus AGPN
  No bacteriuria (REF) N = 211 (61.5 %) Only ASB N = 63 (18.4 %) Univariable analysis HR (95 % CI) P value Cystitis N = 26 (7.6 %) Univariable analysis HR (95 % CI) P value AGPN N = 43 (12.5 %) Univariable analysis HR (95 % CI) P value
Variables
 TMP-SMX prophylaxis 117 (55.5) 46 (73.0) 2.03 (1.17–3.55) 0.012 21 (80.8) 3.12 (1.18–8.28) 0.022 28 (65.1) 1.46 (0.78–2.73) 0.239
 Age of recipient 51 (38–59) 54 (46–64) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 0.029 56 (44–60) 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 0.108 54 (38–62) 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.282
 Female gender 85 (40.3) 38 (60.3) 2.01 (1.22–3.33) 0.007 13 (50.0) 1.43 (0.67–3.10) 0.357 16 (37.2) 1.18 (0.63–2.18) 0.610
 Diabetes Mellitus (a) 49 (23.2) 19 (30.2) 1.37 (0.80–2.35) 0.250 13 (50.0) 1.13 (1.45–6.75) 0.004 13 (30.2) 1.39 (0.73–2.67) 0.320
 BMI of recipient 25.0 +/−4.30 25.3 +/−4.35 1.02 (0.96–1.08) 0.576 27.0 +/−6.7 1.09 (1.01–1.17) 0.027 25.0 +/−3.9 1.00 (0.94–1.08) 0.932
 Age of donor 49 (40–56) 53 (43–65) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 0.010 51 (40–58) 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.738 48 (37–57) 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.992
 Allograft from deceased donor 122 (57.8) 50 (79.4) 1.22 (0.73–2.03) 0.453 23 (88.5) 5.28 (1.59–17.60) 0.007 30 (69.8) 1.61 (0.84–3.09) 0.152
 Delayed graft function 60 (28.4) 19 (30.2) 1.08 (0.63–1.84) 0.790 13 (50.0) 2.41 (1.12–5.21) 0.025 17 (39.5) 1.56 (0.85–2.87) 0.156
 Acute rejection 43 (20.4) 19 (30.2) 1.56 (0.91–2.67) 0.109 8 (30.8) 1.64 (0.71–3.78) 0.244 10 (23.3) 1.12 (0.55–2.28) 0.751
 Indwelling urological catheter (b) 5 (2.4) 28 (44.4) 12.94 (7.76–21.57) <0.001 5 (19.2) 8.22 (3.09–21.90) <0.001 15 (34.9) 11.24 (5.92–21.33) <0.001
 First transplantation 180 (85.3) 54 (85.7) 1.04 (0.52–2.11) 0.907 22 (84.6) 0.97 (0.34–2.83) 0.961 38 (88.4) 1.27 (0.50–3.22) 0.619
 CMV disease 16 (7.6) 6 (9.5) 1.26 (0.54–2.92) 0.592 1 (3.8) 0.50 (0.07–3.66) 0.491 3 (7.0) 0.88 (0.28–2.87) 0.842
Maintenance therapy
 Tacrolimus + MMF + steroids 122 (57.8) 41 (65.1) 1.00   18 (69.2) 1.00   24 (55.8) 1.00  
 MMF + cyclosporine + steroids 22 (10.4) 8 (12.7) 1.02 (0.48–2.19) 0.851 2 (7.7) 0.65 (0.15–2.81) 0.567 6 (14.0) 1.30 (0.53–3.19) 0.563
 MA + cyclosporine + steroids 67 (31.8) 14 (22.2) 0.65 (0.35–1.19) 0.164 6 (23.1) 0.63 (0.25–1.57) 0.319 13 (30.2) 0.97 (0.49–1.90) 0.919
Induction therapy
 Basiliximab 134 (63.5) 39 (61.9) 0.94 (0.56–1.56) 0.805 43 (52.3) 0.58 (0.27–1.24) 0.159 30 (69.8) 1.28 (0.67–2.46) 0.455
  1. Continuous variables are depicted as mean with +/− standard deviation or as median with (25–75 %) interquartile range. Nominal variables are depicted as the total number analysed with its percentage (%). AGPN allograft pyelonephritis, ASB asymptomatic bacteriuria, CI confidence interval, CMV cytomegalovirus, MA mycophenolic acid, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, NA not applicable, HR hazard ratio, REF reference, TMP-SMX trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
  2. a: The variable “diabetes mellitus” includes type 1, type 2 diabetes and new onset of diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), irrespective of whether it was the primary disease which led to renal failure
  3. b: The variable “Indwelling urological catheter” represents Foley catheter, nephrostomy catheter and intermittent self-catheterisation