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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics with bacteremia due to Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

From: Clinical characteristics of the patients with bacteremia due to Moraxella catarrhalis in children: a case–control study

  M. catarrhalis S. pneumoniae H. influenzae p-value* p-value**
(n = 8) (n = 110) (n = 22)
Age (months, mean ± SD) 16 ± 12 35 ± 32 25 ± 33 - -
Gender (female, %) 6 (75 %) 51 (46 %) 6 (27 %) 0.153 0.188
Body weight (kg)
 mean ± SD 8.31 ± 2.80 12.49 ± 6.15 10.20 ± 3.10 0.016a 0.188
 IQR 7.45-9.25 8.70-13.60 8.30-10.88   
Vaccination
 PCV7
  YES (n, %) 6 (75 %) 25 (23 %) 1 (5 %) 0.004a <0.001a
 PCV13
  YES (n, %) 0 (0 %) 1 (1 %) 0 (0 %) N/A N/A
 Hib vaccine
  YES (n, %) 5 (63 %) 32 (29 %) 2 (9 %) 0.106 0.007a
 Underlying diseases
  YES (n, %) 7 (88 %) 39 (35 %) 9 (41 %) 0.005a 0.039a
 Immunodeficiency
  YES (n, %) 1 (13 %) 14 (13 %) 1 (5 %) 1.000 0.469
 Immunosuppressants
  YES (n, %) 2 (25 %) 7 (6 %) 0 (0 %) 0.114 0.064
 Devices
  YES (n, %) 6 (75 %) 18 (16 %) 0 (0 %) 0.001a <0.001a
 Trans-nasal devices
  YES (n, %) 5 (63 %) 7 (6 %) 0 (0 %) <0.001a <0.001a
 History of previous intubation
  YES (n, %) 5 (63 %) 32 (29 %) 4 (18 %) 0.106 0.032a
 Contact with sick people
  YES (n, %) 2 (25 %) 45 (41 %) 10 (45 %) 0.472 0.419
 Pre-existing antibiotics
  YES (n, %) 0 (0 %) 38 (38 %) 10 (45 %) 0.049a 0.029a
 Hospital acquired infection
  YES (n, %) 6 (75 %) 18 (16 %) 1 (5 %) 0.001a <0.001a
Symptoms
 Rhinorrhea (n, %) 2 (25 %) 53 (48 %) 3 (14 %) 0.281 0.589
 Cough (n, %) 5 (63 %) 44 (40 %) 5 (23 %) 0.274 0.078
 Convulsion (n, %) 1 (13 %) 31 (28 %) 8 (36 %) 0.445 0.374
 Vomiting (n, %) 2 (25 %) 14 (13 %) 1 (5 %) 0.296 0.166
 Diarrhea (n, %) 1 (13 %) 6 (5 %) 2 (9 %) 0.350 1.000
Body temperature
 Tmax (°C, mean) 38.9 39.3 39.0 0.176 0.557
 IQR 38.6–39.2 38.7–40.0 38.5–39.8   
Focus of infection
 Occult bacteremia 0 (0 %) 40 (36 %) 2 (10 %) 0.050 1.000
 Pneumonia 4 (50 %) 19 (17 %) 5 (22 %) 0.046 0.195
 Meningitis 0 (0 %) 4 (4 %) 8 (36 %) 1.000 0.071
 Otitis media/Sinusitis 0 (0 %) 13 (12 %) 1 (5 %) 0.596 1.000
 Others 3b(38 %) 10c(9 %) 5d(22 %) 0.048 0.643
 Unknown 1 (12 %) 24 (22 %) 1 (5 %) 1.000 0.469
Empiric antibiotic therapye
 Aminopenicillinsf 0 (0 %) 19 (17 %) 0 (0 %) 0.351 N/A
 Beta-lactam/Beta-lactamase inhibitor combinationsg 3 (38 %) 8 (7 %) 1 (5 %) 0.026 0.048
 Second generation cephalosporinsh 1 (12 %) 2 (2 %) 0 (0 %) 0.191 0.267
 Third generation cephalosporinsi 3 (38 %) 71 (65 %) 17 (77 %) 0.147 0.078
 Othersj 1 (12 %) 17 (15 %) 8 (36 %) 1.000 0.374
 No treatment 0 (0 %) 3 (3 %) 2 (9 %) 1.000 1.000
 Initiation with combination therapy 0 (0 %) 10 (9 %) 6 (27 %) 1.000 0.155
Duration of fever after treatment (days, mean ± SD) 2.63 ± 0.92 1.86 ± 1.00 3.77 ± 3.61 0.012a 0.599
 IQR 2–3 1–2 2–4.75   
WBC (/μL, mean ± SD) 14,774 ± 13,750 19,706 ± 7862 17,805 ± 10,173   
 IQR 9395–12,158 14,548–24,318 9468–22,988 0.011a 0.277
ANC (/μL, mean ± SD) 11,395 ± 13,884 14,690 ± 7569 12,057 ± 7662   
 IQR 5220–9049 8984–19,408 6964–15,575 0.025a 0.237
CRP (mg/dL, mean ± SD) 1.86 ± 1.47 5.65 ± 6.68 8.09 ± 8.60   
 IQR 1.00–2.68 1.00–8.03 1.30–15.08 0.114 0.091
Hospitalization
 YES (n, %) 7 (88 %) 84 (76 %) 14 (64 %) 0.680 0.374
ICU admission
 YES (n, %) 2 (25 %) 9 (8 %) 1 (5 %) 0.162 0.166
  1. *p-value for S. pneumoniae, compared to M. catarrhalis, **p-value for H. influenzae, compared to M. catarrhalis
  2. aindicates significant (p < 0.05)
  3. binclude bronchitis (n = 3)
  4. cinclude pyothorax (n = 2), spontaneous bacterial nephritis (n = 2), periorbital cellulitis (n = 2), arthritis (n = 1), mastoiditis (n = 1), infective endocarditis (n = 1), and infectious pericarditis (n = 1)
  5. dinclude periarthritis (n = 1), urosepsis (n = 1), buccal cellulitis (n = 1), osteomyelitis (n = 1), and periorbital cellulitis (n = 1)
  6. eAntimicrobial combination therapy was empirically initiated in a part of patients. (10 in S.pneumoniae group and 6 in H.influenzae, group)
  7. finclude ampicillin and amoxicillin
  8. ginclude ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, and cefoperazone/sulbactam
  9. hinclude cefotiam and cefaclor
  10. iinclude cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefditoren pivoxil
  11. jinclude piperacillin, cefazolin, cefepime, clindamycin, vancomycin, meropenem, panipenem/betamipron, amikacin
  12. Abbreviations: interquartile range, IQR; 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV7; 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13; Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hib; white blood cell count, WBC; absolute neutrophil count, ANC; C-reactive protein, CRP; intensive care unit, ICU; not available, N/A