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Table 6 Multivariate model examining association between HIV infection and time to death among patients treated for tuberculosis, adjusted for baseline MDR-TB*

From: Impact of HIV on mortality among patients treated for tuberculosis in Lima, Peru: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Multivariate model Direct effect model
(without mediators) (with mediators)
N = 1211, 101 deaths N = 1192, 97 deaths
Adjusted HR Adjusted HR
  (95 % CI) P value (95 % CI) P value
HIV positive 6.36 (3.9810.2) <0.001 4.71 (2.877.73) <0.001
Pediatric casea 0.41 (0.06–3.01) 0.381 0.32 (0.04–2.37) 0.265
Female gender 0.77 (0.48–1.25) 0.288 0.84 (0.51–1.38) 0.484
Unemployed 1.95 (1.282.97) 0.002 1.61 (1.052.47) 0.029
Baseline sputum AFB smear positive 2.05 (0.96–4.36) 0.063 2.14 (1.00–4.61) 0.051
Baseline MDR-TB 1.40 (0.92–2.13) 0.121 1.37 (0.89–2.10) 0.150
Able to perform ADLs    0.27 (0.160.45) <0.001
Low BMIb    2.09 (1.373.19) 0.001
Dyspnea    1.27 (0.792.07) 0.326
  1. ADLs activities of daily living, AFB acid-fast bacilli, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HR hazard ratio, MDR-TB multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
  2. *Boldface indicates P < 0.05. The total n for each multivariate model is lower than the analysis cohort (n = 1701) because of complete case drop of observations with missing data
  3. aDefined as age <15 years
  4. bDefined as BMI <20 kg/m2 in men, BMI <18.5 kg/m2 in women