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Table 1 Rates of all-cause pneumonia among healthy, at-risk, and high-risk children

From: Rates of pneumonia among children and adults with chronic medical conditions in Germany

    All-Cause Pneumonia
  No. of Person-Years Age <5 Years Age 5–17 Years
  Age Age Rate Rate Ratiosa Rate Rate Ratiosa
  <5 Years 5-17 Years per 100 K (95 % CI) per 100 K (95 % CI)
Risk Group       
 Healthy 360,184 1,318,738 3,779 1.0 730 1.0
 At-Risk 129,895 310,546 6,555 1.7 (1.7, 1.8) 1,734 2.4 (2.3, 2.5)
  Chronic heart disease 15,181 19,899 7,813 2.1 (2.0, 2.1) 2,055 2.8 (2.7, 2.9)
  Chronic lung disease 88,323 169,241 6,539 1.7 (1.7, 1.8) 1,836 2.5 (2.4, 2.6)
  Diabetes 680 5,595 5,886 1.6 (1.5, 1.6) 1,734 2.4 (2.3, 2.5)
  Asthma 29,737 134,188 8,986 2.4 (2.3, 2.4) 1,994 2.7 (2.6, 2.9)
  Alcoholism 0 2,092 0 0.0 (----) 813 1.1 (1.0, 1.2)
  Chronic liver disease 241 2,074 14,099 3.7 (3.7, 3.8) 2,941 4.0 (3.9, 4.2)
  Smokers 0 530 0 0.0 (----) 1,321 1.8 (1.7, 1.9)
  Down's syndrome 473 1,318 14,579 3.9 (3.8, 3.9) 4,022 5.5 (5.3, 5.7)
  Neuromuscular/seizure disorder 9,075 18,219 7,570 2.0 (2.0, 2.0) 2,898 4.0 (3.8, 4.1)
  Short gestation/low birthweight 10,311 32 8,719 2.3 (2.3, 2.4) 6,250 8.6 (8.4, 8.8)
  Rheumatoid 67 1,250 10,448 2.8 (2.7, 2.8) 960 1.3 (1.2, 1.4)
   Rheumatoid arthritis 8 358 0 0.0 (----) 280 0.4 (0.3, 0.4)
   Lupus 0 59 0 0.0 (----) 0 0.0 (----)
   Crohn's 59 841 11,865 3.1 (3.1, 3.2) 1,307 1.8 (1.7, 1.9)
 High-Risk 17,704 45,383 6,914 1.8 (1.8, 1.9) 2,131 2.9 (2.8, 3.0)
  Cochlear implant 1,134 2,684 5,907 1.6 (1.5, 1.6) 2,906 4.0 (3.8, 4.1)
  Functional/anatomic asplenia 850 2,347 9,175 2.4 (2.4, 2.5) 2,983 4.1 (3.9, 4.2)
  HIV 318 1,287 3,769 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 1,710 2.3 (2.2, 2.5)
  Chronic renal failure 1,127 4,579 12,778 3.4 (3.3, 3.4) 3,036 4.2 (4.0, 4.3)
  Immunosuppressants 905 4,893 9,720 2.6 (2.5, 2.6) 1,696 2.3 (2.2, 2.4)
   Malignant neoplasms 854 4,669 7,263 1.9 (1.9, 2.0) 1,328 1.8 (1.7, 1.9)
   Solid organ transplantation 76 326 34,354 9.1 (9.0, 9.2) 6,441 8.8 (8.6, 9.0)
  Congenital immunodeficiency 13,227 29,420 6,328 1.7 (1.6, 1.7) 2,094 2.9 (2.7, 3.0)
  Diseases of white blood cells 683 1,468 11,267 3.0 (2.9, 3.0) 2,247 3.1 (3.0, 3.2)
  1. aRelative to healthy counterparts