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Table 1 Characteristics of included RCTs on intradermal versus intramuscular administration of influenza vaccine

From: Immunogenicity and safety of intradermal influenza vaccine in immunocompromized patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Authors Country Interventions Units of treatment ID/IM Immunogenicity   Reported reactions Population Quality score
Seroprotection Seroconversion Injection sitea Systemicb Jadad scale Chalmers scale
A/H1N1 A/H3N2 B A/H1N1 A/H3N2 B      
   ID IM   N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)   
ID/IM ID/IM ID/IM ID/IM ID/IM ID/IM ID/IM ID/IM
L Gelinck et al. 2009 [14] Netherlands TIV SU TIV SU 77/79 49(63.6)/60(75.9) 60(77.9)/58(73.4) 50(64.9)/55(69.6) NA NA NA Total reactionsc Immuno-compromized patients 3/5 0.54
3 μg HA/strain 15 μg HA/strain 52 % ID group/30 % IM group
Y Jo et al. 2009 [15] Korea TIV SPL TIV SPL 52/55 50(96.1)/52(94.5) 50(90.1)/54(98.1) 41(78.8)/ 45(81.8) 38(73)/41(74.5) 28(53.8)/24(43.6) 28(53.8)/37(67.3) 10 (19)/3(5.5)d 1 (1.9)/2 (3.6)e Patients with solid cancer 2/5 0.32
7.5 μg HA/strain 15 μg HA/strain
E Morelon et al. 2010 [16] France TIV SPL TIV SPL 31/31 22(71)/16(52) 16(52)/11(36) 22(71)/19(61) 11(35)/6(19) 11(35)/6(19) 6(19)/6(19) 25 (80.6)/ 15 (48.4) 17 (54.8)/16 (51.6) Renal transplant patients 3/5 0.45
15 μg HA/strain 15 μg HA/strain
O Manuel et al. 2011 [17] Multicentricf TIV SPL TIV SPL 41/43 16(39)/ 12(28) 34(83)/ 42(98) 12(29)/ 25(58) 3(7.3)/ 3(7) 2(4.9)/3(7) 3(7.3)/5(11.6) 17 (41.5)/11 (25) 3 (7.3)/7 (15.9) Lung transplant patients 3/5 0.67
6h μg HA/strain 15 μg HA/strain
F Ansaldi et al. 2012 [18] Italy TIV SPL TIV SPL 28/24 22(79)/19(80) 23(82)/19(80) 21(75)/18(76) 14(50)/15(64) 15(54)/14(60) 11(36)/ 8(32) 18 (64.3)/5 (20.8) 6 (21.4)/3 (12.5)g HIV-infected patients 3/5 0.71
9 μg HA/strain 15 μg HA/strain
A Baluch et al. 2013 [19] Canada TIV SPL TIV SPL 107/105 76(71)/74(70.5) 75(70.1)/67(63.8) 68(63.6)/55(52.4) 40(37.4)/36(34.3) 31(29)/32(30.5) 23(21.5)/18(17.1) NA Transplant patients 3/5 0.75
9i μg HA/strain 15 μg HA/strain
  1. ID: Intradermal; IM: Intramuscular; TIV: trivalent inactivated vaccine; HA: hemagglutinin; SPL: split vaccine; SU: subunit vaccine
  2. aPain at injection site, erythema, swelling, pruritus, induration and ecchymosis
  3. bFever, myalgia, headache, malaise and shivering
  4. cFrequency of local and systemic adverse reactions calculated on 125 participants that recorded whether or not they had suffered adverse reactions
  5. dReferred to swelling that was the most frequent symptom suffered both in ID and IM groups
  6. eReferred to fever or myalgia
  7. fCanada and Switzerland
  8. gReferred to shivering that was the most frequent symptom suffered both in ID and IM groups
  9. hTwo doses of ID vaccine were delivered for a cumulative dose of 12 μg antigen per strain
  10. iTwo doses of ID vaccine were delivered for a cumulative dose of 18 μg antigen per strain