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Table 1 Reference Measures of In-vitro Activity and Pharmacokinetics and Reported Cmax and Tmax in Simultaneous Serum and Pleural Fluid Samples in Chronic Tuberculous Empyema

From: Therapeutic drug monitoring and the conservative management of chronic tuberculous empyema: case report and review of the literature

Reference Measures of In-Vitro Activity and Pharmacokinetics Simultaneous Serum and Pleural Cmax and Tmax in CTE
Drug Cmaxa Tmaxa MICb Cmax/MIC Dose (mg) Cmax (mg/L) Tmax (hrs)c
  (mg/L) (hrs) (mg/L)   (Ref.) Serum Pleural Fluid Serum Pleural Fluid
Isoniazid 3-6 1-2 0.125 24.0-48.0 300 (12) 3.25 0.96 1 (6) 6 (6)
 (300 mg)      400 (P1) 3.49 1.75 1 (6) 6 (6)
      900 (P2) 12.77 5.12 2 (8) 6 (8)
Rifampin 8-24 2 0.03125 256.0-768.0 600 (7) 21.75 0.87 2 (10) 10 (10)
 (600 mg)      600 (12) 8.01 0.48 2 (6) 6 (6)
      600 (P1) 2.20 1.02 2 (6) 6 (6)
      1200 (P2) 12.92 1.57 2 (8) 8 (8)
Pyrazinamide 20-50 1-2 50.000 0.4-1.0 2000 (12) 45.82 22.68 1 (6) 6 (6)
 (20–25 mg/kg)      2000 (P1) 34.99 29.85 6 (6) 6 (6)
Ethambutol 2-6 1-2 1.000 2.0-6.0 1200 (7) 1.60 1.90 6 (10) 6 (10)
 (20–25 mg/kg)      1400 (P1) 3.31 1.60 6 (6) 6 (6)
Moxifloxacin 3-5 2 0.250 12.0-20.0 600 (P1) 3.80 1.08 6 (6) 6 (6)
 (400 mg)      600 (7)d 10.08 4.84 2 (10) 10 (10)
  1. Abbreviations: Cmax maximum concentration; Tmax time-to-Cmax ; MIC minimum inhibitory concentration; CTE chronic tuberculous empyema; P1 present report, measurement after four weeks of treatment; P2 present report, measurement after six weeks of treatment.
  2. aCmax and Tmax measures were those in use by the Infectious Disease Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Free Cmax concentrations are not shown, but on the basis of protein binding of 0 % for isoniazid, 85 % for rifampin, 10 % for pyrazinamide, 25 % for ethambutol and 50 % for moxifloxacin [810], are estimated to be 3.0-6.0, 1.2-3.6, 18–45, 1.5-4.5 and 1.5-2.5 mg/L, respectively
  3. bMICs are those used by Gumbo et al. [11]
  4. cNumbers in brackets refer to the sampling interval
  5. dOfloxacin