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Table 1 Diagnostic tests to be employed on stool (and urine) samples from patients with persistent digestive disorders and healthy controls in Côte d’Ivoire, Indonesia, Mali and Nepal during the NIDIAG study. Note: except for the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for Schistosoma mansoni which uses urine, all tests are performed on stool samples

From: Diagnosis of neglected tropical diseases among patients with persistent digestive disorders (diarrhoea and/or abdominal pain ≥14 days): a multi-country, prospective, non-experimental case–control study

Diagnostic test Targeted pathogens Reference(s)
 Direct faecal smear Helminths, intestinal protozoa [55]
 Kato-Katz thick smear Helminths [56]
 Acid-fast staining Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cystoisospora belli [57]
 Baermann funnel concentration technique Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm [41, 58]
 Formalin-ether concentration technique Helminths, intestinal protozoa [59, 60]
 Mini-FLOTAC Helminths [61, 62, 63]
 Bacteriological stool culture Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp. [9]
 Koga agar culture Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm [6467]
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)   
 Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis [37]
 Circulating cathodic antigen (CCA)a Schistosoma mansoni [6872]
Molecular post-hoc testing on ethanol-fixed stool samples   
 Multiplex PCR Helminths, intestinal protozoa (all samples); diarrhoeagenic bacteria and viruses (selected sub-sample) [7376]
  1. aThis test will only be employed in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, because S. mansoni does not occur in Indonesia and Nepal