Skip to main content

Table 3 Risk factors for HUS among 333 STEC patients, Norway, 1992–2012

From: Shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli infections in Norway, 1992–2012: characterization of isolates and identification of risk factors for haemolytic uremic syndrome

Determinanta No. of patients Predictive valuesb Univariable analysesc Multivariable analysesc, d
  All (333) HUS (25) PPV NPV OR (95 % CI) Model 1 (risk factors) Model 2 (preventive factors) Model 3 (all factors)
OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Age ≤ 5 yr 130 22 16.9 % 98.5 % 13.6 (4.0-46.4) 12.2 (3.2-46.7)   16.7 (4.24-65.7)
Bloody diarrhea 119 13 10.9 % 99.4 % 19.5 (2.5-151.3 NDe   
Diarrhea 148 1 0.7 % 78.1 % 0.1 (0.008-0.5)   ND  
Hospitalizedf 141 24 17.0 % 100.0 % ND    
SF O157 9 5 55.6 % 93.8 % 19.0 (4.7-76.3) NSg   
O145 24 5 20.8 % 93.5 % 3.8 (1.3-11.2)    
O145:H? 6 4 66.7 % 93.6 % 29.1 (5.0-168.4) NS   
stx1 215 1h 0.5 % 79.7 % 0.02 (0.002-0.1)   0.02 (0.002-0.1) 0.1 (0.01-0.8)
stx1a 189 1h 0.5 % 83.3 % 0.03 (0.004-0.2)    
stx2 207 25 12.1 % 100.0 % ND    
stx2a 85 24 28.2 % 99.6 % 97.2 (12.9-732.5) 92.7 (10.7-803.5)   30.1 (3.3-271.9)
stx2c 100 2 2.0 % 90.1 % 0.2 (0.04-0.8   0.2 (0.03-0.7) 0.6 (0.1-3.3)
eae 245 25 10.2 % 100.0 % ND    
  1. aAll determinants associated with HUS (p ≤ 0.05) were included
  2. bPPV; positive predictive value, NPV; negative predictive value
  3. cOR; odds ratio, CI; 95 % confidence interval
  4. dModel 1; factors related to increased risk of developing HUS, Model 2; factors related to reduced risk of HUS, and Model 3; comprising both factors related to increased and decreased risk of HUS
  5. eND; not determined since all HUS cases were hospitalized and all HUS isolates carried stx2 and eae
  6. fInformation on hospitalization was not available for 37 patients, including one HUS patient
  7. gNS; not statistically significant
  8. hOne HUS patients had two STEC isolates; one with stx1a + stx2a and another with stx1a only