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Table 4 Diagnostic findings in hepatic TB case series

From: A systematic review of hepatic tuberculosis with considerations in human immunodeficiency virus co-infection

Lead author N Imaging Liver biopsy
(Year)   ABN CXR (%) ABN ABD US (%) ABN ABD CT (%) AFB+ smear (%) Caseating granulomas (%) PCR+ (%)
Hersch (1964) [32] 143 ND ND ND 31 (11/35) 62 (89/143) ND
Alvarez (1983) [29] 130 65 (83/128) 100 (16/16) ND 7 (2/30) 68 (48/71) ND
Essop (1984) [18] 96 75 (72/96) ND ND 9 (9/96) 83 (80/96) ND
Maharaj (1987) [20] 41 78 (32/41) 6 (1/18) ND 59 (24/41) 51 (21/41) ND
Chien (1994) [2] 22 ND ND ND 18 (4/22) 86 (19/22) ND
Kok (1999) [44] 5 0 (0/5) 100 (5/5) 100 (4/4) ND ND ND
Huang (2003) [49] 5 20 (1/5) 40 (2/5) 40 (2/5) 20 (1/5) 80 (4/5) 100 (5/5)
Vilaichone (2004) [45] 20 ND 61 (11/18)& ND 30 (6/20) 45 (9/20) 86 (12/14)
Yu (2004) [60] 12 17 (2/12) 25 (2/8) 100 (12/12) ND ND ND
Desai (2006) [14] 7 0 (0/7) 100 (7/7) 100 (2/2) 43 (3/7) 14 (1/7) ND
Amarakpurkar (2008) [76] 38 ND 79 (30/38) 88 (15/17)& 54 (21/39) 78 (18/23) 97 (28/29)
Tai (2008) [19] 10 ND 89 (8/9) 86 (6/7) 20 (2/10) 100 (10/10) 30 (3/10)
Hwang (2009) [50] 12 ND ND 56 (5/9) 33 (2/6) ND 75 (3/4)
Gounder (2012) [30] 20 88 (15/17) 73 (11/15) ND 0 (0/14) 45 (9/20)# ND
Median (Range)   42.5 (0–88) 76 (6–100) 88 (40–100) 25 (0–59) 68 (14–100) 86 (30–100)
  1. TB = Tuberculosis; ABN = Abnormal; CXR = Chest x-ray; ABD = Abdominal; US = Ultrasound; CT = Computed tomography; AFB = Acid-fast bacilli; PCR = Polymerase chain reaction; ND = Not documented or not done, &Minimum abnormal, given documentation; #Granulomas present, caseation not specified.