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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate† analysis of risk factors for enterococcal bloodstream infection among febrile children admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (n = 1828)*

From: Genetic relatedness and risk factor analysis of ampicillin-resistant and high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococci causing bloodstream infections in Tanzanian children

  Univariate anlysis Multivariate analyses
     All patients with clinical information (n = 1603) All patients with known HIV status (n = 842)
Variable Enterococci Others OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Neonate 28.2% (11/39) 29.3 (524/1789) 0.9 (0.47-1.92) 0.883 0.4 (0.14-0.98) 0.046 g
Prematurity 9.1 (3/33) 3.2 (51/1570) 3.0 (0.88 - 10.08) 0.079 4.4 (1.06-18.1) 0.041 4.7 (1.19-18.8) 0.019
Male sex 61.5 (24/39) 55.4 (992/1789) 1.3 (0.67 - 2.47) 0.450 e 2.9 (1.03-7.91) 0.043
Hospital acquired infection# 48.7 (19/39) 33.2 (594/1789) 1.9 (1.01 - 3.61) 0.046 2.0 (0.96– 4.00) 0.066 1.8 (0.73-4.29) 0.209
Antibiotic use before blood culture 66.7 (26/39) 57.0 (1020/1789) 1.5 (0.77 – 2.95) 0.231 c b
Cephalosporin use before blood culture 5.1 (2/39) 4.0% (71/1789) 1.3 (0.31 – 5.53) 0.715 a c
Diagnoses      
Malnutrition 21.2 (7/33) 15.4 (241/1570) 1.5 (0.64 - 3.46) 0.360 f 3.7 (1.24-11.28) 0.019
HIV infection 13.0 (3/23) 18.8 (173/919) 0.6 (0.19 – 2.20) 0.486 § 0.5 (0.14-2.04) 0.363§
Urinary tract infection 12.1% (4/33) 11.4% (179/1570) 1.1 (0.37- 3.08) 0.898 b a
Pneumonia 21.2% (7/33) 20.1% (315/1570) 1.1 (0.46- 2.49) 0.871 d e
Sepsis with unknown focus 45.5% (15/33) 29.4% (462/1570) 2.0 (1.00- 4.00) 0.050 2.9 (1.36-6.20) 0.006 2.6 (1.06-6.55) 0.037
Congenital heart disease 6.1% (2/33) 2.3% (36/1570) 2.7 (0.63- 11.93) 0.177 g d
Acute watery diarrhoea 9.1 (3/33) 21.8 (343/1570) 0.4 (0.11 - 1.18) 0.091 0.3 (0.09-1.07) 0.065 f
  1. OR = Odds ratio, 95% CI = 95% confidence interval, *There are varying numbers of patients evaluated for each risk factor because, among the 1828 study persons, we only have information on HIV status for n = 942 and sufficient clinical information for n = 1603. #Hospital acquired = blood culture taken >48 hours after admission Multivariate analysis was performed by stepwise backwards logistic regression with threshold p = 0.2 for removal from the model and p = 0.05 for inclusion, Risk factors were removed in a stepwise fashion in the sequence of ascending letters from “a” to “g”, §HIV was removed from the first logistic regression because the many missing values would affect the model, HIV was locked in the second model although number of observations were reduced.