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Table 3 Immunological correlates of VMB clusters

From: Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women

Correlates KRST-I (n = 19) KRST-II (n = 136) KRST-pIII-V (n = 53) p value*a
(in log10) Mean (95% CI) OR/aOR (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)  
IL-1α 1.08 (0.86, 1.3) Ref 1.22 (1.14, 1.31) 1.61 (0.69, 3.77) 1.58 (0.58, 4.33) 1.64 (1.48, 1.81) 7.4 (2.63, 20.82) 11.5 (3.29, 40.22) <0.0001
IL-1β 0.65 (0.33, 0.97) Ref 0.83 (0.71, 0.95) 1.4 (0.72, 2.74) - 1.34 (1.11, 1.57) 3.33 (1.58, 7.03) - <0.0001
IL-1rab 4.65 (4.36, 4.94) Ref 4.83 (4.74, 4.91) 1.9 (0.76, 4.76) - 4.87 (4.74, 5) 2.28 (0.79, 6.6) - 0.28
IL-6 0.64 (0.33, 0.95) Ref 0.9 (0.79, 1) 1.68 (0.85, 3.3) - 0.9 (0.68, 1.11) 1.68 (0.8, 3.54) - 0.31
IL-8 2.06 (1.83, 2.28) Ref 2.19 (2.09, 2.28) 1.41 (0.62, 3.2) - 2.25 (2.04, 2.45) 1.65 (0.68, 3.97) - 0.54
IL-12c 0.07 (−0.18, 0.32) Ref 0.13 (0.05, 0.21) 1.31 (0.45, 3.81) - 0.24 (0.12, 0.35) 2.11 (0.66, 6.7) - 0.28
IP-10 2.54 (2.36, 2.73) Ref 2.62 (2.51, 2.73) 1.22 (0.57, 2.6) 0.98 (0.39, 2.43) 2.15 (1.93, 2.38) 0.47 (0.21, 1.06) 0.16 (0.05, 0.47) 0.0002
GM-CSF 0.26 (0.05, 0.47) Ref 0.32 (0.25, 0.39) 1.38 (0.47, 4.03) - 0.13 (−0.01, 0.27) 0.58 (0.19, 1.78) - 0.0351
G-CSF 1.84 (1.57, 2.11) Ref 1.91 (1.79, 2.02) 1.16 (0.57, 2.38) 0.71 (0.26, 1.92) 2.08 (1.93, 2.23) 1.83 (0.81, 4.15) 3.6†† (1.02, 12.73) 0.18
MIP-1βd 0.69 (0.23, 1.15) Ref 0.94 (0.83, 1.05) 1.57 (0.84, 2.94) 1.73 (0.79, 3.82) 0.7 (0.48, 0.93) 1.02 (0.52, 1.98) 0.61 (0.25, 1.52) 0.085
  1. Abbreviations:CI confidence interval, KRST Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio. For cytokine and growth factor abbreviations, we refer to the text.
  2. *One way analysis of variance test in a bivariable analysis.
  3. aSix variables qualified for inclusion in the multivariable model but only four (IL-1α, IP-10, G-CSF, and MIP-1β) variables remained in the final model after the model selection process. Although, IL-1β was highly significant in the bivariable analysis, it was eliminated during the model selection because it was highly correlated with IL-1α (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.65).
  4. b19/208 values missing.
  5. cStronger evidence of association was observed when pregnant women and Tanzanian women (stage of menstrual cycle at time of sampling not known) were excluded (p = 0.09).
  6. dWeaker evidence of association was observed when pregnant women and Tanzanian women (stage of menstrual cycle at time of sampling not known) were excluded (p = 0.27).
  7. Adjusted P-value < 0.001.
  8. ††Adjusted P-value = 0.01.