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Table 1 Individual level factors associated with HIV and HCV infections in bio-behavioural study, Poland 2004 to2005

From: High regional variability of HIV, HCV and injecting risks among people who inject drugs in Poland: comparing a cross-sectional bio-behavioural study with case-based surveillance

      HIV HCV
   N HIV+ (prevalence, %) HCV+ (prevalence, %) AOR* (95% CI) p-value AOR** (95% CI) p-value
Total   763 137 (18.0) 448 (58.7)     
Region Lubelskie 87 25 (28.7) 38 (43.7) 2.65 (1.04-6.7) 0.0004 0.44 (0.19-1) 0.0176
  Lubuskie 156 14 (9.0) 86 (55.1) 1.98 (0.7-5.63)   2.04 (0.91-4.58)  
  Śląskie 60 8 (13.3) 41 (68.3) 0.71 (0.27-1.9)   1.39 (0.59-3.3)  
  Warmińsko-mazurskie 82 2 (2.4) 49 (59.8) 0.22 (0.04-1.13)   1.19 (0.49-2.89)  
  Dolnośląskie 200 32 (16.0) 120 (60.0) 2.78 (1.44-5.39)   0.73 (0.4-1.32)  
  Mazowieckie 178 56 (31.5) 114 (64.0) ref.   ref.  
Recruitment site Street/low-threshold 507 111 (21.9) 300 (59.2) 3.8 (1.75-8.25) 0.001 1.4 (0.76-2.59) 0.285
Drug treatment centre 256 26 (10.2) 148 (57.8) ref.   ref.  
Social welfare/pension as current main source of income Yes 241 82 (34.0) 179 (74.3) 1.95 (1.17-3.26) 0.010 1.32 (0.81-2.16) 0.263
No 509 55 (10.8) 264 (51.9) ref.   ref.  
Currently working or in school No 488 124 (25.4) 343 (70.3) 3.27 (1.52-7.03) 0.002 2.9 (1.79-4.68) <0.0001
Yes 261 12 (5.0) 100 (38.3) ref.   ref.  
Homelessness In last 12 months 149 58 (38.9) 110 (73.8) 2.56 (1.43-4.58) 0.0062 1.07 (0.63-1.82) 0.3310
Before last 12 months 127 29 (22.8) 91 (71.7) 1.74 (0.91-3.32)   1.54 (0.87-2.71)  
Never 474 50 (10.5) 242 (51.1) ref.   ref.  
Imprisonments In last 12 months 158 41 (26.0) 118 (74.7) 2.26 (1.18-4.36) 0.0482 2.4 (1.29-4.47) 0.0223
Before last 12 months 183 45 (24.6) 128 (70.0) 1.27 (0.71-2.28)   1.25 (0.77-2.03)  
Never 409 51 (12.5) 197 (48.2) ref.   ref.  
First injection 2 to 5 years ago 215 19 (8.8) 110 (51.2) 4.03 (1.09-14.9) <0.0001 1.24 (0.69-2.21) <0.0001
>5 years ago 369 113 (30.6) 268 (72.6) 12.37 (3.59-42.64)   3.3 (1.82-5.96)  
<2 years ago 124 4 (3.2) 53 (42.7) ref.   ref.  
Periods of everyday injecting Yes 620 132 (21.3) 421 (67.9) 1.69 (0.45-6.3) 0.436 3.98 (1.74-9.15) 0.001
No 113 5 (4.4) 18 (15.9) ref.   ref.  
Sharing needles/syringes Shared but disinfected in >1/2 such occasions 75 9 (12.0) 46 (61.3) 0.64 (0.28-1.47) 0.0132 0.69 (0.38-1.26) 0.0406
Shared and disinfected in < =1/2 such occasions 337 85 (25.2) 240 (71.2) 1.79 (1.02-3.16)   1.4 (0.88-2.24)  
Never shared 270 36 (13.3) 127 (47.0) ref.   ref.  
Used opioids last 30 days Yes 569 116 (20.4) 383 (67.3) 0.83 (0.35-1.93) 0.657 2.62 (1.45-4.71) 0.001
No 194 21 (10.8) 65 (33.5) ref.   ref.  
Injected last 30 days Yes 599 126 (21.0) 406 (67.8) 1.4 (0.46-4.27) 0.555 5.02 (2.55-9.89) <0.0001
No 164 11 (6.7) 42 (25.6) ref.   ref.  
  1. *odds ratio from multivariable logistic regression model including the factors listed in the table with HIV status as the outcome variable.
  2. **odds ratio from multivariable logistic regression model including the factors listed in the table with HCV status as the outcome variable.
  3. Abbreviations: AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.