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Table 3 Viral findings and contribution of different methods to diagnostic yield in the study population

From: Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia and diagnostic yields of microbiological methods: a 3-year prospective study in Norway

Pathogen No. (%) of patients with positive findings(n = 267) Real-time PCR Serology(n = 263)
NP swab(n = 262)a OP swab(n = 262)b
Influenza virusesc 40 (15) 15 3 22
Rhinovirus 32 (12) 27 5 NA
Parainfluenza virusesd 8 (3) 5 3 NA
Respiratory syncytial viruse 7 (3) 7 - NA
Metapneumovirus 7 (3) 4 3 NA
Enterovirus 5 (2) 5 - NA
Adenovirus 1 (0.4) 1 - NA
Totalf 92 (34) 64 14 22
  1. Note: Data are number of patients, unless otherwise stated, whose infections were etiologically established by use of a particular method listed in descending order of specificity (NP vs. OP swab PCR are generally considered equally). Additional patients had etiology established by use of different methods; e.g., infection with influenza viruses was established by use of OP swab in 3 additional patients whose etiology was not established by NP swab etc. PCR, polymerase chain reaction; NP, nasopharynx; OP, oropharynx; NA, not applicable.
  2. aOf 262 patient samples, 240 revealed valid results for detection of all viruses (except from influenza viruses of which 239 samples revealed valid results).
  3. bOf 262 patient samples, 238 revealed valid results for detection of all viruses.
  4. cInfluenza A virus (13 cases of which 2 cases were H1N1 positive), Influenza B virus (5 cases). 1 case tested positive for both influenza A and B viruses by use of serology.
  5. dParainfluenza virus type 1 (1 case), type 2 (2 cases), type 3 (5 cases).
  6. eRespiratory syncytial virus A (5 cases), 2 cases were undefined.
  7. fNo. of patients does not add up to no. of pathogens because some patients had multiple pathogens detected: a total of 100 viruses were detected in 92 patients.