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Table 1 Study population characteristics

From: Vitamin D and tuberculosis: a multicenter study in children

 

Controls n = 814

Latent TB n = 138

Active TB n = 44

Total n = 996

P

Enrolling centre, n (%):

    

<0.0001

- Evelina London Children’s

21 (2.6%)

25 (18.1%)

17 (38.6%)

63 (6.4%)

 

Hospital, London, UK

     

- Great Ormond Street

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

15 (34.1%)

15 (1.5%)

 

Hospital, London, UK

     

- Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy

793 (97.4%)

113 (81.9%)

12 (27.3 %)

918 (92.1%)

 

Age in years, median (IQR)

5.5 (3.1-8.1)

6.9 (4.3-10.8)

4.7 (3.0-11.6)

5.8 (3.1-8.5)

<0.0001

Gender, n (%):

    

<0.0001

- Male

496 (60.9%)

85 (61.6%)

15 (34.1%)

596 (59.4%)

 

- Female

310 (38.1 %)

52 (37.7%)

29 (65.9 %)

391 (39.6%)

 

- Not known

8 (1%)

1 (0.7%)

0 (0%)

9 (0.9%)

 

Country of origin * , n (%):

    

<0.0001

- Asia

146 (17.9%)

19 (13.8%)

4 (9.1%)

169 (17%)

 

- Latin America

183 (22.5%)

24 (17.4%)

4 (9.1%)

211 (21.2%)

 

- Eastern Europe§

269 (33%)

57 (41.3%)

5 (11.4%)

331 (33.2%)

 

- Western Europe

36 (4.4%)

7 (5.1%)

3 (6.8 %)

46 (4.6%)

 

- Nord Africa

16 (2%)

1 (0.7%)

2 (4.5%)

19 (1.9%)

 

- Sub-Saharan Africa

151 (18.6%)

29 (21%)

25 (56.8 %)

205 (20.6%)

 

- Other

8 (1%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

8 (0.8%)

 

- Not known

5 (0.6%)

1 (0.7%)

1 (2.3%)

7 (0.7%)

 

Ethnic group, n (%):

    

<0.0001

- African

168 (20.7%)

30 (21.7%)

27 (61.4%)

225 (22.6%)

 

- Asiatic

146 (17.9%)

19 (13.8%)

4 (9.1%)

169 (17%)

 

- Caucasian

306 (37.6%)

64 (46.4%)

8 (18.2%)

378 (37.9%)

 

- Hispanic

183 (22.5%)

24 (17.4%)

4 (9.1%)

211 (21.2%)

 

- Other

6 (0.7%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

6 (0.6%)

 

- Not known

5 (0.6%)

1 (0.7%)

1 (2.2%)

7 (0.7%)

 

BCG, n (%):

    

0.109

- Yes

460 (56.5%)

89 (64.5%)

20 (45.5%)

569 (57.1%)

 

- No

244 (30.0%)

40 (29.0%)

19 (43.2%)

303 (30.4%)

 

- Not known

110 (13.5%)

9 (6.5%)

5 (11.4%)

124 (12.4%)

 

Risk factors for vitamin D

    

0.932

deficiency†, n (%):

     

- Yes

470 (57.7%)

74 (53.6%)

32 (72.7%)

576 (57.8%)

 

- No

344 (42.3%)

64 (46.4%)

12 (27.3%)

420 (42.2%)

 

Risk factors for TB

    

<0.0001

infection, n (%):

     

- Tb contact

92 (11.4%)

31 (22.5%)

27 (21.2%)

150 (15.1%)

 

- Travel to/immigrated from

695 (85.3%)

104 (75.4%)

10 (22.8%)

809 (80.1%)

 

TB endemic country

     

- Not known

27 (3.3%)

3 (2.1%)

7 (15.9%)

37 (3.7%)

 

IGRA, n (%):

    

<0.0001

- Positive

0 (0.0%)

45 (32.6%)

28 (63.6%)

73 (7.3%)

 

- Negative

792 (97.3%)

71 (51.4%)

7 (15.9%)

870 (87.3%)

 

- Not known

22 (2.7%)

22 (15.9%)

9 (20.5%)

53 (5.3%)

 

TST, n (%):

    

<0.0001

- Positive

0 (0.0%)

120 (87%)

32 (72.7%)

152 (15.3%)

 

- Negative

777 (95.5%)

10 (7.2%)

2 (4.5%)

789 (79.2%)

 

- Not known

37 (4.5%)

8 (5.8%)

10 (22.7%)

55 (55.2%)

 
  1. *Whether the child’s family is originally from a TB endemic country, this has been indicated as country of origin, independently from the country of birth.
  2. §Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldavia, Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Hungary.
  3. African, Asiatic and Hispanic ethnic group.