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Table 1 Study population characteristics

From: Vitamin D and tuberculosis: a multicenter study in children

  Controls n = 814 Latent TB n = 138 Active TB n = 44 Total n = 996 P
Enrolling centre, n (%):      <0.0001
- Evelina London Children’s 21 (2.6%) 25 (18.1%) 17 (38.6%) 63 (6.4%)  
Hospital, London, UK      
- Great Ormond Street 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 15 (34.1%) 15 (1.5%)  
Hospital, London, UK      
- Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy 793 (97.4%) 113 (81.9%) 12 (27.3 %) 918 (92.1%)  
Age in years, median (IQR) 5.5 (3.1-8.1) 6.9 (4.3-10.8) 4.7 (3.0-11.6) 5.8 (3.1-8.5) <0.0001
Gender, n (%):      <0.0001
- Male 496 (60.9%) 85 (61.6%) 15 (34.1%) 596 (59.4%)  
- Female 310 (38.1 %) 52 (37.7%) 29 (65.9 %) 391 (39.6%)  
- Not known 8 (1%) 1 (0.7%) 0 (0%) 9 (0.9%)  
Country of origin * , n (%):      <0.0001
- Asia 146 (17.9%) 19 (13.8%) 4 (9.1%) 169 (17%)  
- Latin America 183 (22.5%) 24 (17.4%) 4 (9.1%) 211 (21.2%)  
- Eastern Europe§ 269 (33%) 57 (41.3%) 5 (11.4%) 331 (33.2%)  
- Western Europe 36 (4.4%) 7 (5.1%) 3 (6.8 %) 46 (4.6%)  
- Nord Africa 16 (2%) 1 (0.7%) 2 (4.5%) 19 (1.9%)  
- Sub-Saharan Africa 151 (18.6%) 29 (21%) 25 (56.8 %) 205 (20.6%)  
- Other 8 (1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 8 (0.8%)  
- Not known 5 (0.6%) 1 (0.7%) 1 (2.3%) 7 (0.7%)  
Ethnic group, n (%):      <0.0001
- African 168 (20.7%) 30 (21.7%) 27 (61.4%) 225 (22.6%)  
- Asiatic 146 (17.9%) 19 (13.8%) 4 (9.1%) 169 (17%)  
- Caucasian 306 (37.6%) 64 (46.4%) 8 (18.2%) 378 (37.9%)  
- Hispanic 183 (22.5%) 24 (17.4%) 4 (9.1%) 211 (21.2%)  
- Other 6 (0.7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 6 (0.6%)  
- Not known 5 (0.6%) 1 (0.7%) 1 (2.2%) 7 (0.7%)  
BCG, n (%):      0.109
- Yes 460 (56.5%) 89 (64.5%) 20 (45.5%) 569 (57.1%)  
- No 244 (30.0%) 40 (29.0%) 19 (43.2%) 303 (30.4%)  
- Not known 110 (13.5%) 9 (6.5%) 5 (11.4%) 124 (12.4%)  
Risk factors for vitamin D      0.932
deficiency†, n (%):      
- Yes 470 (57.7%) 74 (53.6%) 32 (72.7%) 576 (57.8%)  
- No 344 (42.3%) 64 (46.4%) 12 (27.3%) 420 (42.2%)  
Risk factors for TB      <0.0001
infection, n (%):      
- Tb contact 92 (11.4%) 31 (22.5%) 27 (21.2%) 150 (15.1%)  
- Travel to/immigrated from 695 (85.3%) 104 (75.4%) 10 (22.8%) 809 (80.1%)  
TB endemic country      
- Not known 27 (3.3%) 3 (2.1%) 7 (15.9%) 37 (3.7%)  
IGRA, n (%):      <0.0001
- Positive 0 (0.0%) 45 (32.6%) 28 (63.6%) 73 (7.3%)  
- Negative 792 (97.3%) 71 (51.4%) 7 (15.9%) 870 (87.3%)  
- Not known 22 (2.7%) 22 (15.9%) 9 (20.5%) 53 (5.3%)  
TST, n (%):      <0.0001
- Positive 0 (0.0%) 120 (87%) 32 (72.7%) 152 (15.3%)  
- Negative 777 (95.5%) 10 (7.2%) 2 (4.5%) 789 (79.2%)  
- Not known 37 (4.5%) 8 (5.8%) 10 (22.7%) 55 (55.2%)  
  1. *Whether the child’s family is originally from a TB endemic country, this has been indicated as country of origin, independently from the country of birth.
  2. §Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldavia, Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Hungary.
  3. African, Asiatic and Hispanic ethnic group.