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Table 6 Sensitivity, specificity, and multivariate logistic regression for prediction of influenza versus dengue and influenza versus other febrile illnesses

From: Use of simple clinical and laboratory predictors to differentiate influenza from dengue and other febrile illnesses in the emergency room

  Influenza n/N (%) Dengue n/N (%) Other febrile illnesses n/N (%) Adjusted odds ratio 95% CI P Sensitivity% Specificity%
Influenza vs. dengue         
All ages         
No skin rashes 234/238 (98.3) 58/145 (40) - 131.336 35.416-487.039 <0.001 98.3 60
No leukopeniaa 225/232 (96.9) 64/145 (44.1) - 24.978 7.010-89.006 <0.001 96.9 55.9
No marked thrombocytopeniab 233/238 (97.9) 37/145 (25.5) - 105.973 31.687-354.419 <0.001 97.9 74.5
Age ≤18 years         
No skin rashes 185/189 (97.9) 12/23 (52.2) - 326.393 30.860-3452.098 <0.001 97.9 52.2
No leukopeniaa 185/189 (97.9) 9/23 (39.1) - 122.116 10.888-1369.665 <0.001 97.9 60.9
No marked thrombocytopeniab 186/189 (98.4) 11/23 (47.8) - 88.632 6.443-1219.174 0.001 98.4 52.2
Age >18 years         
No leukopeniaa 46/49 (93.9) 55/122 (45.1) - 13.99 3.628-53.946 <0.001 93.9 54.9
No marked thrombocytopeniab 45/49 (91.8) 26/122 (21.3) - 34.096 10.622-109.445 <0.001 91.8 78.7
Influenza vs. other febrile illnesses         
All ages         
Rhinorrhea 152/238 (63.9) - 57/137 (41.6) 3.350 1.997-5.618 <0.001 63.9 58.4
Malaise 105/238 (44.1) - 16/137 (11.7) 6.050 3.207-11.414 <0.001 44.1 88.3
Sore throat 105/238 (44.1) - 30/137 (21.9) 3.407 1.960-5.922 <0.001 44.1 78.1
Dyspnea 41/238 (17.3) - 1/137 (0.7) 47.335 6.174-632.919 <0.001 17.3 99.3
Mild thrombocytopeniac 38/238 (15.9) - 5/137 (3.6) 3.779 1.309-10.908 0.014 15.9 96.4
Age ≤18 years         
Rhinorrhea 131/189 (69.3) - 53/106 (50) 2.765 1.531-4.997 0.001 69.3 50
Malaise 76/189 (40.2) - 6/106 (5.7) 11.129 4.455-27.802 <0.001 40.2 94.3
Sore throat 83/189 (43.9) - 21/106 (19.8) 3.575 1.892-6.753 <0.001 43.9 80.2
Dyspnea 24/189 (12.7) - 1/106 (0.9) 20.867 2.641-164.872 0.004 12.7 99
Mild thrombocytopeniac 24/189 (12.7) - 2/106 (1.9) 7.138 1.509-33.769 0.013 12.7 98.1
Age >18 years   -       
Rhinorrhea 36/81 (44.4) - 8/45 (17.8) 4.726 1.654-13.5 0.004 44.4 82.2
Malaise 42/81 (51.9) - 13/45 (28.9) 3.108 1.224-7.897 0.017 51.9 71.1
  1. n/N = number of patients/total number of patients with data available; CI = confidence interval.
  2. aLeukopenia is defined as white cell counts <3.0 × 109 cells/L.
  3. bMarked thrombocytopenia is defined as platelet counts <100 × 109 cells/L.
  4. cMild thrombocytopenia is defined as platelet counts 149-100 × 109 cells/L.