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Table 3 Risk factors associated with overall survival

From: Risk and prognostic significance of tuberculosis in patients from The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database

      Univariate Multivariate
  No. of patients Follow up (years) No. of events Rate HR p HR (95% CI) p-value
Total 3279 6968 142 2.04     
Sex
Male 2307 4992 105 2.10     
Female 972 1976 37 1.87 0.89 0.527 1.07 (0.73, 1.57) 0.732
Age at entry of TAHOD (years)
< = 30 1103 2270 40 1.76     
31~40 1401 3016 50 1.66 0.95 0.812 0.86 (0.57, 1.32) 0.497
41+ 775 1682 52 3.09 1.78 0.006 1.79 (1.18, 2.71) 0.006
Reported mode of infection
Heterosexual contact 2288 5013 97 1.94     
Homosexual contact 614 1261 12 0.95 0.47 0.014 0.68 (0.21, 1.25) 0.368
Injecting drug use 132 276 14 5.08 2.54 0.001 1.40 (0.27, 2.53) 0.772
Blood products 120 196 7 3.58 1.77 0.144 1.57 (0.26, 3.44) 0.721
Other/unknown 125 222 12 5.40 2.65 0.001 1.63 (0.12, 3.01) 0.883
CD4 count (cells/μL) *
< = 50 316 268 51 19.02     
51–100 325 246 16 6.49 0.35 <0.001 0.37 (0.21, 0.66) 0.001
101–200 939 875 20 2.29 0.12 <0.001 0.14 (0.08, 0.24) <0.001
201–300 1238 1276 19 1.49 0.08 <0.001 0.10 (0.06, 0.17) <0.001
301+ 2242 4244 22 0.52 0.03 <0.001 0.04 (0.02, 0.07) <0.001
Not tested 68 59 14 23.68 1.18 0.592 0.86 (0.46, 1.58) 0.622
Country of TB burden
High 1990 3775 95 2.52     
Low/intermediate 1289 3193 47 1.47 0.62 0.007 0.86 (0.60, 1.26) 0.435
Antiretroviral treatment *
No treatment 830 1006 44 4.37     
Treated, 0~90 days 475 88 8 9.14 1.89 0.103 1.08 (0.50, 2.35) 0.846
Treated, 91–180 days 703 154 5 3.24 0.67 0.405 0.39 (0.15, 0.99) 0.049
Treated, 181–360 days 1048 428 21 4.91 1.06 0.838 0.73 (0.42, 1.27) 0.265
Treated 361+ days 2478 5292 64 1.21 0.31 <0.001 0.32 (0.21, 0.51) <0.001
Disease stage *
CDC Category A 1444 2900 37 1.28     
CDC Category B 442 824 12 1.46 1.15 0.679 0.95 (0.49, 1.84) 0.886
TB only 328 634 13 2.05 1.65 0.122 1.53 (0.80, 2.91) 0.197
TB + CDC Category B 202 382 8 2.09 1.70 0.175 0.99 (0.45, 2.16) 0.976
Single non-TB ADI 523 1035 22 2.13 1.69 0.051 1.40 (0.80, 2.42) 0.237
Multiple non-TB ADIs 212 461 19 4.12 3.34 <0.001 2.27 (1.25, 4.10) 0.007
TB and other ADI(s) 336 732 31 4.23 3.57 <0.001 2.12 (1.27, 3.55) 0.004
  1. Rate: per 100 person years. HR: hazard ratio. CI: confidence interval. ADI: AIDS defining illness.
  2. * Time dependent variable, patients can contribute person time to more than one category thus the sum of the categories may be more than the total number of patients.