Skip to main content

Table 4 Abdominal symptoms two years after Giardia infection reported in a cohort of 1017 cases, associated with patient characteristics and factors during giardiasis.

From: Severity of Giardiainfection associated with post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after

Characteristics N Abdominal symptoms
   No
N (%)
Unsure
N (%)
Yes
N (%)
Simple regression analysisa Multiple regression analysisb
      OR p-value OR p-value 95% CI
Gender         0.029  
   Male 355 138 (39) 87 (25) 130 (37) 1.00   1.00   
   Female 622 222 (36) 141(23) 259 (42) 1.20 0.158 1.45   (1.04, 2.04)
Age c (years) 977     1.01 0.064 - Ns -
Abdominal problems before 2004 leading to          
   Visiting doctor 119 35 (29) 39 (33) 45 (38) 1.13 0.516 - Ns -
   Hospitalisation 17 4 (24) 8 (48) 5 (30) 1.04 0 925 - Ns -
   Sick leave 18 7 (39) 8 (44) 3 (17) 0.62 0.286 - Ns -
   Use of medication 40 12 (30) 16 (40) 12 (30) 0.94 0.826   Ns  
   Problems without seeking health care 94 30 (32) 26 (28) 38 (40) 1.13 0.539 - Ns -
No abdominal problems before 2004 883 330 (37) 202 (23) 351 (40) 1.18 0.220 - Ns  
Acute giardiasis          
   Diarrhoea 880 318 (36) 211 (24) 351 (40) 1.19 0.390 - Ns -
   Abdominal pain 674 212 (32) 160 (24) 302 (45) 2.05 <0.001 - Ns -
   Weight loss 529 187 (35) 128 (24) 214 (41) 1.10 0.411 - Ns -
   Malaise 742 242 (33) 183 (25) 317 (43) 1.91 <0.001 - Ns -
   Nausea 632 226 (36) 150 (24) 256 (41) 1.11 0.391 - Ns -
   Foul smell 595 178 (30) 146 (25) 271 (46) 2.00 <0.001 - Ns  
   Bloating 645 176 (27) 158 (25) 311 (48) 3.20 <0.001 1.51 0.023 (1.06, 2.16)
Treatment refractory infection d 28 7 (25) 6 (21) 15 (54) 1.78 0.117 3.08 0.030 (1.11, 8.53)
Treatment courses e         <0.001  
   0 or 1 360 242 (67) 85 (24) 33 (9) 1.00   1.00   
   2 or more 237 99 (42) 69 (29) 69 (29) 3.23 <0.001 3.39 <0.001 (2.33, 4.94)
   Recovered during course but relapsed 3 1 (33) 1 (33) 1 (33) 4.38 0.166 5.05 Ns (0.57, 45.11)
   Not recovered 374 16 (4) 73 (20) 285 (76) 30.54 <0.001 32.81 <0.001 (21.67, 49.65)
Sick leave e         Ns  
   No sick leave 387 162 (42) 85 (22) 140 (36) 1.00   1.00   
   < 1 week 61 20 (33) 19 (31) 22 (36) 1.21 0.460 - Ns -
   1-2 weeks 105 41 (39) 32 (31) 32 (31) 0.95 0.806 - Ns -
   > 2 weeks 153 43 (28) 27 (18) 83 (54) 2.04 <0.001 - Ns -
   Not working 241 85 (35) 60 (25) 96 (40) 1.26 0.150 - Ns -
Delayed education e         0.020  
   No delay 306 140 (46) 65 (21) 101 (33) 1.00   1.00   
   < 1 semester 67 25 (37) 15 (22) 27 (40) 1.40 0.175 1.06 Ns (0.60, 1.89)
   1 semester 42 9 (21) 10 (24) 23 (55) 2.69 0.002 2.47 0.024 (1.13, 5.45)
   > 1 semester 34 1 (3) 8 (24) 25 (74) 6.64 <0.001 3.50 0.013 (1.30, 9.38)
   Not a student 379 141 (37) 91 (24) 147 (39) 1.36 0.031 3.14 Ns (0.80, 1.63)
  1. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; Ns, not significant; CI, confidence interval.
  2. a Simple ordinal logistic regression analysis (proportional odds model).
  3. b Ordinal logistic regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis included all variables in the table. Missing values; n = 205.
  4. c Age as continuous variable in the statistical analysis.
  5. d All cases successfully treated with albendazole + metronidazole, paromomycin or quinacrine + metronidazole after 30 (mean) weeks duration of infection [11].
  6. e Categorical variable in the statistical analysis including the categories shown in the table. Likelihood-ratio test (STATA).