Effects of fluid resuscitation on heart rate in the three groups. Heart rate in all cases was recorded by statisticians. There were no differences in heart rate among the groups during the 120 min trial or the 8 h follow-up. Comparing heart rate in the same group, the heart rate at T8h was lower than that at T0 in the Ns and Sb groups (*p < 0.05), but no change of heart rate appeared in the Hs group. Resuscitation by fluids did not change heart rate in patients during the 120 min trial.