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Table 2 Factors associated with healthcare seeking among injecting drug users reporting an injection site infection in past year: England 2003/05.

From: Frequency, factors and costs associated with injection site infections: Findings from a national multi-site survey of injecting drug users in England

   Yes N
(Total = 365)
Univariate Odds
Ratio with 95%
confidence interval
Mulitvariate Adjusted
Odds Ratio with 95%
confidence interval
Received prescribed substitute drug Currently 138 182 76% 1.0   1.0  
  Previously 94 147 64% 0.6 0.4 – 0.9 0.5 0.3 – 0.9
  Never 15 36 42% 0.2 0.1 – 0.5 0.3 0.1 – 0.7
Inject into groin last 4 weeks No 100 174 57% 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 147 191 77% 2.5 1.6 – 3.9 2.1 1.3 – 3.4
Clean injecting site last 4 weeks Never 113 184 61% 1.0   1.0  
  Sometimes 58 85 68% 1.3 0.8 – 2.3 1.4 0.8 – 2.6
  Always 76 96 79% 2.4 1.3 – 4.2 2.5 1.4 – 4.6
Ever had voluntary confidential test for hepatitis C Yes 195 257 76% 3.4 2.1 – 5.4 3.5 2.1 – 5.8
  No 52 108 48% 1.0   1.0  
Number of years injecting <= 4 25 53 47% 1.0   
  5 – 9 80 120 67% 2.2 1.2 – 4.3   
  10 – 14 64 84 76% 3.6 1.7 – 7.5   
  15 + 78 108 72% 2.9 1.5 – 5.8   
Inject into arm last 4 weeks No 72 94 77% 1.0   
  Yes 175 271 65% 0.6 0.3 – 1.0   
Ever had voluntary confidential test for HIV No 71 132 54% 1.0   
  Yes 176 233 76% 2.7 1.7 – 4.2   
Anti-HCV Positive No 80 134 60% 1.0   
  Yes 167 231 72% 1.8 1.1 – 2.8   
  1. † Variable not in final model.
  2. Note: Seeking health care an injection site infection was found not to be associated with: gender; age; homelessness; having been imprisoned; having had an overdose; cleaning needles and syringes before reuse; injecting crack-cocaine; injecting amphetamines; number of days injecting per month; number times inject per day; using citric acid, vitamin c/ascorbic acid, lemon juice, or vinegar to dissolve drugs; injecting into legs, neck or hands; number times used last needle; washing hands before injection; and uptake of hepatitis B vaccine.