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Table 1 Characteristics of HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia according to HAART status on admission.

From: Outcome of HIV-associated Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized patients from 2000 through 2003

Characteristic All (n = 292) Not on HAART (n = 178) On HAART (n = 107)
Age, median years, (range) 40 (23–68) 40 (23–63) 41 (21–68)
Gender, n (%)    
Male 246 (84.2) 152 (85.4) 90 (84.1)
Female 46 (15.8) 26 (14.6) 17 (15.9)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)    
White 30 (10.3) 17 (9.6) 12 (11.2)
Black 102 (34.9) 63 (35.4) 37 (34.6)
Hispanic/Latino 151 (51.7) 91 (51.1) 57 (53.3)
Other/unknown 9 (3.1) 7 (3.9) 1 (0.9)
HIV risk factor, n (%)    
Men who have sex with men 97 (33.2) 58 (32.6) 38 (35.5)
Intravenous drug use 32 (11.0) 18 (10.1) 13 (12.1)
Heterosexual 80 (27.4) 50 (28.1) 29 (27.1)
Blood transfusion 3 (1.0) 1 (0.6) 2 (1.9)
Unknown 80 (27.4) 51 (28.7) 25 (23.4)
Medical history, n (%)    
Initial HIV diagnosis 80 (27.4) 79 (44.4) 0 (0)*
History of PCP 72 (24.7) 26 (14.6) 43 (40.2)*
Use of PCP prophylaxis 92 (31.5) 30 (16.9) 60 (56.1)*
Use of HAART 107 (36.6) 0 (0) 107 (100)*
Current smoker 116 (39.7) 74 (41.6) 41 (38.3)
Laboratory values    
CD4, cells/μl, median (range)(n = 131) 19 (0–697) 18 (1–267) 22 (0–697)
HIV viral level, log copies/ml, median (range)(n = 57) 5.3 (1.7–5.9) 5.3 (1.7–5.9) 5.3 (2.6–5.9)
Albumin, g/dl, median (range) 2.5 (0.6–4.1) 2.5 (0.6–3.8) 2.4 (0.6–4.1)
LDH, U/l, median (range) 332 (119–1425) 331 (119–1425) 323 (119–962)
Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, mm Hg, median (range)(n = 129) 43.3 (18.0–89.0) 44.6 (18.0–89.0) 38.5 (21.8–73.0)
Complications, n (%)    
ICU admission 100 (34.2) 66 (37.1) 29 (27.1)
Mechanical ventilation 39 (13.4) 25 (14.0) 11 (10.3)
Pneumothorax 20 (6.8) 17 (9.6) 2 (1.9)^
Respiratory failure after 5 days 10 (3.4) 8 (4.5) 2 (1.9)
Change of PCP therapy 14 (4.8) 10 (5.6) 4 (3.7)
Outcome    
Died in-hospital 34 (11.6) 21 (11.8) 10 (9.3)
Length of stay, median days (range) 8 (1–89) 9 (1–89) 6 (2–69)*
  1. Abbreviations: HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; ICU, intensive care unit; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; PCP, Pneumocystis pneumonia.
  2. Note: HAART use was unavailable for 7 subjects.
  3. *p ≤ 0.001
  4. ^p = 0.01