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Table 4 Prevalence estimates and pairwise comparisons, threat perception questions, by socio-demographic subgroups and health status

From: Pandemic influenza in Australia: Using telephone surveys to measure perceptions of threat and willingness to comply

Population Pandemic influenza likely
(% very/extremely likely)
Concern for self/family
(% very/extremely concerned)
Changed life
(% a little/moderately/a lot/extremely)
Pandemic influenza likely + concerned for self/family Pandemic influenza likely + concerned +life changed
  % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
Total NSW population 14.9 (12.8, 17.2) 45.5 (42.4, 48.6) 23.8 (20.9, 26.6) 9.9 (8.0, 11.8) 4.37 (2.8, 5.9)
Gender      
Male 14.2 (10.6, 17.8) 43.5 (38.6, 48.4) 23.5 (18.9, 28.0) 9.3 (6.1, 12.4) 4.8 (2.0, 7.6)
Female 15.8 (13.2, 18.3) 47.6 (43.8, 51.4) 24.0 (20.7, 27.4) 10.5 (8.5, 12.5) 4.0 (2.8, 5.2)
Age §      
16–24 8.7 (3.6, 13.8)* 33.9 (24.3, 43.5)* 28.1(18.2, 38.0) 3.4 (6.1, 12.4)*** 0.9 (0, 2.2)***
25–34 9.9 (4.8, 14.9) 43.2 (34.3, 52.0) 20.5 (13.6, 27.4) 6.1 (8.5, 12.5) 2.5 (0.2, 4.8)
35–44 16.0 (9.1, 22.9) 47.9 (39.7, 56.1) 27.7 (19.8, 35.5) 10.4 (0.3, 6.5) 4.8 (0, 10.7)
45–54 17.1 (12.7, 21.5) 50.0 (43.5, 56.5) 22.0 (16.8, 27.1) 13.1 (2.4, 9.8) 7.2 (3.7, 10.6)
55–64 19.0 (14.0, 24.0) 47.4 (41.3, 53.5) 21.8 (16.5, 27.0) 13.0 (4.0, 16.8) 5.1 (1.6, 8.5)
65–74 20.6 (15.5, 25.7)* 46.3 (40.3, 52.4) 23.2 (17.9, 28.5) 13.7 (9.0, 17.1) 5.8 (2.4, 9.1)
75+ 17.6 (11.8, 24.3) 54.9 (47.0, 62.8)* 19.8 (13.1, 26.6) 13.3 (8.7, 17.3) 4.9 (1.7, 8.0)
Children in household      
Yes 11.6 (7.3, 15.9) 46.7 (40.6, 52.8) 26.5 (20.8, 32.3) 7.8 (3.9, 11.8) 4.2 (0.6, 7.8)
No 16.6 (13.7, 19.4) 44.3 (40.2, 48.4) 22.8 (19.2, 26.3) 10.6 (8.4, 12.8) 4.5 (3.0, 6.1)
Born in Australia      
Yes 15.3 (12.8, 17.9) 46.4 (42.8, 50.0) 21.8(18.7, 25.0)* 9.9 (7.7, 12.0) 4.3 (2.4, 6.2)
No 13.9 (9.5, 18.2) 42.9 (36.5, 49.2) 29.3 (23.2, 35.5) 10.0 (6.2, 13.7) 4.6 (2.0, 7.2)
Speak language other than English at home      
Yes 13.5 (7.2, 19.8) 46.5 (37.5, 55.5) 36.3 (27.4, 45.3)** 10.3 (4.8, 15.9) 4.7 (1.0, 8.4)
No 15.3 (12.9, 17.6) 45.3 (42.0, 48.6) 21.4 (18.6, 24.3) 9.8 (7.8, 11.8) 4.3 (2.6, 6.0)
Location      
Urban 13.1 (10.1, 16.0)* 45.0 (40.8, 49.2) 24.7 (20.9, 28.5) 8.5 (6.0, 11.0)* 4.3 (2.1, 6.5
Rural 19.1 (16.3, 22.0) 46.6 (42.6, 50.5) 21.7 (18.4, 25.0) 12.8 (10.4, 15.3) 4.5 (3.1, 6.0)
Living alone      
Yes 18.7 (14.9, 22.5) 47.4 (42.6, 52.3) 19.4 (15.7, 23.1)* 13.5 (10.1, 16.9)* 4.3 (2.4, 6.0)
No 14.5 (12.1, 17.0) 45.3 (41.8, 48.8) 24.3 (21.2, 27.5) 9.4 (7.4, 11.5) 4.4 (2.7, 6.1)
Highest formal qualification §      
None 27.4 (18.2, 36.6)* 53.5 (44.0, 62.9) 26.1 (18.2, 34.0) 18.3 (11.2, 25.4)* 8.7 (3.2, 14.1)
School certificate 16.8 (12.5, 21.0) 45.9 (39.9, 51.8) 22.7 (17.8, 27.7) 9.6 (6.9, 12.3) 3.7 (2.1, 5.4)
High school certificate 11.5 (7.2, 15.9) 39.6 (31.7, 47.6) 22.1 (15.0, 29.3) 8.2 (4.6, 11.8) 3.8 (1.7, 5.9)
TAFE certificate/diploma 15.4 (10.9, 19.8) 44.1 (37.7, 50.6) 24.3 (18.4, 30.2) 9.2 (5.7, 12.6) 3.7 (1.1, 6.2)
University degree/equivalent 13.2 (8.7, 17.7) 47.6 (41.5, 53.6) 24.2 (18.5, 30.0) 10.1 (5.7, 14.4) 4.9 (0.9, 8.9)
Employed      
Yes 13.5 (10.6, 16.0)* 44.9 (40.6, 49.3) 22.5 (18.8, 26.3) 8.5 (6.4, 10.5)* 3.3 (1.9, 4.6)
No 18.1 (14.7, 21.4) 47.2 (42.7, 51.6) 24.1 (20.1, 28.2) 12.3 (9.6, 15.1) 5.2 (3.1, 7.3)
Household income §      
< $20 k 21.2(15.8, 26.6)* 45.9 (39.4, 52.3) 30.1 (23.0, 37.1) 16.1 (11.3, 20.8)* 7.0 (3.6, 10.4)
$20 k – $40 k 18.8 (13.8, 23.8) 47.2 (39.9, 54.6) 25.6 (18.8, 32.4) 12.5 (8.6, 16.4) 5.1 (2.3, 7.8)
$40 k – $60 k 18.9 (13.1, 24.7) 46.6 (38.7, 54.5) 24.8 (17.6, 32.0) 10.8 (6.6, 15.1) 2.3 (0.6, 3.9)
$60 k – $80 k 17.2(7.1, 27.3) 45.5 (35.0, 55.9) 19.5 (9.8, 29.2) 12.1 (2.1, 22.0) 7.4 (0, 17.0)
> $80 k 9.0 (5.8, 12.3)** 43.9 (37.5, 50.2) 22.0 (16.7, 27.4) 5.2 (2.9, 7.5)** 2.4 (1.0, 3.9)
High psychological distress (≥ 22) ψ      
Yes 21.5 (12.0, 30.9) 46.0 (35.3, 56.7) 30.0 (19.8, 40.2) 16.5 (8.0, 25.0) 8.8 (2.3, 15.4)
No 14.1 (11.4, 16.8) 45.7 (41.4, 50.0) 22.6 (18.9, 26.2) 8.5 (6.5, 10.4) 3.0 (1.9, 4.1)
Positive self-rated health status (good, very good, excellent)      
Yes 13.9 (10.5, 17.2)* 43.7(39.1, 48.3)* 22.4 (18.2, 26.5)* 8.6 (5.7, 11.5)* 3.7 (1.2, 6.3)
No 23.4 (15.3, 31.5) 56.0 (47.1, 64.9) 32.7 (23.5, 41.9) 17.9 (4.0, 10.1) 10.3 (3.2, 17.4)
  1. Notes: Level of statistical significance: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001. Population level frequencies do not agree with Table 3 as don't know/refused responses were excluded from this analysis. § For pairwise comparison testing in subgroups with more than two categories comparisons are made between each subgroup prevalence and the overall population prevalence. ψPsychological distress was measured using the K10. Values range from 10–50, with 'high' psychological distress considered as being ≥ 22. Source: New South Wales Health Survey Program. Sydney: New South Wales Department of Health, 2008.