Skip to main content

Table 5 Factors predicting in-hospitala surgery and surgery within 1 year from admission

From: Short-term and one-year outcome of infective endocarditis in adult patients treated in a Finnish teaching hospital during 1980–2004

  Hazard ratio for in-hospital surgery 95% CI p value Hazard ratio for surgery within 1 year 95% CI p value
Age    <0.001    <0.001
   ≥65 years 1    1   
   18–64 years 3.03 1.76 – 5.21   2.57 1.59 – 4.13  
Sex    0.003    0.013
   Female 1    1   
   Male 2.30 1.32 – 4.02   1.83 1.14 – 2.95  
Etiology    0.611b    0.178b
   Staphylococcus aureus 1    1   
   CoNSc 1.17 0.52 – 2.63   1.07 0.49 – 2.36  
   Viridans streptococci 1.55 0.81 – 2.96   1.56 0.88 – 2.77  
   Enterococcus faecalis 0.59 0.20 – 1.76   0.53 0.18 – 1.56  
   Streptococcus pneumoniae 1.59 0.53 – 4.76   2.67 1.07 – 6.65  
   Other pathogens 1.28 0.55 – 2.97   1.30 0.61–2.77  
   Culture negative 1.38 0.75 – 2.54   1.34 0.77 –2.35  
Affected valve    <0.001b    0.002b
   Prosthetic 1    1   
   Aortic 1.41 0.82 – 2.42   1.47 0.87–2.48  
   Mitral 0.30 0.14 – 0.65   0.67 0.37–1.22  
   Tricuspid NAd NA   NA NA  
   Two native valves 1.77 0.90 – 3.49   2.22 1.16–4.25  
Echocardiography       
   Major Criterion    0.004    <0.001
No 1    1   
Yes 2.99 1.63 – 5.50   2.57 1.58 – 4.18  
   Vegetation    0.027    0.007
No 1.    1   
Yes 1.71 1.06 – 2.76   1.76 1.17 – 2.66  
Neurological complications e    0.399    0.184
No 1    1   
Yes 1.22 0.77 – 1.94   1.32 0.88 – 1.99  
Peripheral emboli e    <0.001    0.112
No 1    1   
Yes 6.12 3.97 – 9.42   1.37 0.93 – 2.03  
Heart failure e    <0.001    <0.001
No 1    1   
Yes 2.26 1.42 – 3.59   2.27 1.52 – 3.39  
Serum CRP on admission       
   < 100 mg/l 1    1   
   ≥100 mg/l 0.64 0.40–1.03 0.063 0.72 0.47–1.09 0.121
ESR f on admission       
   < 50 mm/h 1    1 0.28–0.78 0.004
   ≥50 mm/h 0.44 0.25–0.79 0.006 0.47   
  1. aMean (SD) duration of in-hospital treatment was 55 (33), range 4 to 272 days; bp values for overall group differences; ccoagulase-negative staphylococci; dNA; not applicable, 0 number of cases; ewithin 3 months from admission; ferythrocyte sedimentation rate