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Table 2 Blood concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde (mg/L) before and after 10 surgical hand disinfections

From: Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

Hand rub Substance Before first application Time after last application
    5 min 10 min 20 min 30 min 60 min 90 min 120 min
A Ethanol 0.07 (0.07–0.07) 15.70 (15.39–16.01) 12.20 (11.81–12.60) 14.40 (13.72–15.08) 17.50 (16.49–18.51) 11.25 (10.84–11.66) 10.06 (9.71–10.38) Not done
  Acetaldehyde 0.80 (0.78–0.82) 2.70 (2.64–2.76) 3.00 (2.95–3.06) 4.00 (3.90–4.09) 3.55 (3.46–3.64) 2.60 (2.46–2.74) 2.55 (2.44–2.66) Not done
B Ethanol 0.07 (0.07–0.07) 11.10 (10.85–11.35) 12.50 (11.09–13.91) 21.60 (17.30–25.89) 30.10 (28.09–32.11) 15.00 (12.81–17.19) 4.70 (3.80–5.60) Not done
  Acetaldehyde 0.55 (0.54–0.56) 2.30 (2.25–2.36) 2.20 (2.13–2.27) 2.30 (2.21–2.31) 3.30 (3.24–3.36) 2.50 (2.44–2.56) 1.30 (1.24–1.36) Not done
C Ethanol 0.07 (0.07–0.07) 6.10 (5.84–6.38) 6.40 (5.74–7.06) 8.80 (7.34–10.26) 8.15 (7.34–8.96) 3.70 (3.44–3.96) 1.50 (1.40–1.59) 0.90 (0.83–0.97)
  Acetaldehyde 0.40 (0.39–0.41) 1.25 (1.21–1.29) 1.50 (1.48–1.53) 1.70 (1.67–1.73) 0.90 (0.86–0.94) 0.70 (0.66–0.74) 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 1.00 (0.98–1.02)
  1. Hand rub A (95% ethanol), hand rub B (85% ethanol), hand rub C (55% ethanol); Median with 95% CI (brackets) from 12 volunteers; total exposure of 200 mL hand rub in an open room of 37 m3 with a total contact time of 30 minutes.