Inflammatory cytokines 12 hours after a single exposure to candidate microbicides. Geometric means for each agent are shown normalized by the results in PBS controls as follows, in ng/ml of lavage fluid: IL-1α, 16; IL-1β, 50; KC, 42; MIP-1α, 20; RANTES, 3. Thus N9 increased the concentration of RANTES 224-fold, from 3 to 672 ng/ml in lavage fluid. (The lavage procedure is estimated to have diluted vaginal secretions by 10–50-fold.) (CAO+CB) = 1%CAO+1%CB = 2% detergent.