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Table 2 Comparative rate of apoptosis and biosynthetic activity of blood monocytes of four animal groups with acute pyelonephritis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rate of apoptosis was expressed by the activity of cytoplasmic caspase-3; biosynthetic activity by the ex vivo release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). Therapy was administered 1.5 hours after bacterial challenge.

From: Clarithromycin is an effective immunomodulator when administered late in experimental pyelonephritis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Time (hours) after bacterial challenge A (controls) B (clarithromycin) C (amikacin) D (clarithromycin + amikacin)
  Cytoplasmic activity of caspase-3 (Mean ± SE, pmol/min.104 cells)
3.5 1810.2 ± 1779.6 3210.3 ± 1173.5 277.5 ± 273.0 1155.7 ± 647.8
24 2187.0 ± 1205.9 1096.6 ± 431.9 663.7 ± 662.2 647.9 ± 453.1
48 1129.5 ± 863.3 908.1 ± 908.1 6575.5 ± 657.8 112.3 ± 80.6
  Ex vivo release of TNFα (Mean ± SE, pg/10 4 cells)
3.5 96.6 ± 61.9 394.6 ± 315.5 132.2 ± 44.3 342.7 ± 259.9
24 60.5 ± 39.9 34.5 ± 15.8 143.3 ± 126.5 10.6 ± 3.9a
48 63.1 ± 25.1 15.9 ± 10.6b 79.4 ± 68.4 71.7 ± 19.1
  1. P of comparisons to group A: a0.016, b0.049