Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic features and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of Hepatitis B in children

From: Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan

  Hepatitis B virus   
Risk Factor Positive n (%) Negative n (%) Odds Ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) P value
Therapeutic Injections     
   Yes 45 (69.2) 1766 (50.9)   
   No 20 (30.8) 1702 (49.1) 2.2 (1.3 – 3.6) 0.003
Use of new needle & and syringe     
   Yes 44 (67.7) 1694 (48.8)   
   No 21 (32.3) 1774 (51.2) 2.2 (1.3 – 3.7) 0.003
No: of Injections in the last year     
   <2 injections 4 (12.5) 371 (28.2) Reference  
   2–5 injections 13 (40.7) 462 (35.2) 2.6 (0.8 – 8.1)  
   >5 injections 15 (46.8) 481 (36.6) 2.9 (1.0 – 852) 0.140
Received Blood Transfusion     
   Yes 1 (1.5) 51 (1.5)   
   No 64 (98.5) 3417 (98.5) 1.0 (0.1 – 7.7) 0.964
Hospitalized     
   Yes 16 (24.6) 590 (17)   
   No 49 (75.4) 2878(83) 1.6 (0.9 – 12.8) 0.107
Family member died of Liver disease     
   Yes 7(10.8) 361 (10.4)   
   No 58 (89.2) 3107 (89.6) 1.0 (0.5 – 2.3) 0.925
Diagnosis in Family member     
   HCV 1 (14.3) 12 (3.2)   
   HBV 1 (14.3) 36 (10) -  
   Jaundice 5 (71.4) 306 (84.8)   
   Liver disease 0 7 (2)   0.433
Sharing of various items with infected person     
   Yes 4 (57.1) 110 (31)   
   No 3 (42.9) 244 (69) 3.0 (0.7 – 13.4) 0.147
Previous Immunization     
   Vaccinated 54 (83) 3001(86.5)   
   Non-Vaccinated 11 (7) 467 (13.5) 1.3 (0.7 – 2.5) 0.419
Place vaccinated     
   Private Sector 7 (10.8) 1030 (29.7) Reference  
   Govt. Sector 46 (70.7) 1974 (57) 3.4 (1.5 – 7.6)  
   None 12 (18.5) 464 (13.3) 3.8 (1.5 – 9.7) 0.022
Visit to Barber Shop     
   Yes 47 (72.3) 2814 (81.1)   
   No 18 (27.7) 654 (18.9) 0.6 (0.4 – 1.1) 0.072
Received cuts at Barber Shop     
   Yes 11 (23.4) 686 (24.4)   
   No 36 (76.6) 2128 (75.6) 0.9 (0.5 – 1.9) 0.877
Child's ear/nose pierced     
   Yes 22 (33.8) 1293 (37.3)   
   No 43 (66.2) 2175 (62.7) 0.9 (0.5 – 1.4) 0.570
Dental treatment     
   Yes 0 107 (3)   
   No 65 (100) 3361 (97) - 0.150
Father education status     
   Educated 34 (52.3) 2300 (66.3)   
   Non-Educated 31 (47.7) 1168 (33.7) 1.8 (1.1 – 2.9) 0.018
Mother education status     
   Educated 25 (38.5) 1964 (56.6)   
   Non-Educated 40 (61.5) 1504 (43.4) 2.1 (1.3 – 3.5) 0.003
Ethnic Origin     
   Sindhi 1 (1.5) 86 (2.5) Reference  
   Balochi 12 (18.5) 133 (3.9) 7.8 (1.0 – 60.8)  
   Punjabi 10 (15.4) 996 (28.8) 0.9 (0.1 – 6.8) < 0.001
   Pathan 4 (6.2) 179 (5) 1.9 (0.2 – 17.5)  
   Mohajirs 19 (29.2) 1796 (51.8) 0.9 (0.1 – 6.9)  
   Others 19 (29.2) 278 (8) 5.3 (0.7 – 40.1)  
Age Group (years)     
   ≤ 5 years 17 (26.2) 915 (26.4) Reference  
   6 – 9 years 14 (21.5) 931 (26.8) 0.8 (0.4 – 1.7)  
   10 – 13 years 16 (24.6) 934 (27) 0.9 (0.5 – 1.8)  
   > 13 years 18 (27.7) 688 (19.8) 1.4 (0.7 – 2.8) 0.428
Gender     
   Boys 38 (58.5) 1788 (51.6)   
   Girls 27 (41.5) 1680 (48.4) 1.3 (0.8 – 2.2) 0.270