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Figure 3 | BMC Infectious Diseases

Figure 3

From: Antimicrobial activity of innate immune molecules against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

Figure 3

Ultrastructural changes in OM pathogens treated with innate immune molecules. Panels A, B and C are electron micrographs showing the experimental results with NTHi. Untreated NTHi are shown in panel A. Bacteria were treated for 30 minutes with β defensin-2 (10 μg/ml) (panel B), or with 1 mg/ml human milk lysozyme (panel C). Bar = 0.5 micron. Panels D, E and F show results of experiments with S. pneumoniae 3. Untreated bacteria are shown in panel D. Bacteria were treated for 30 minutes with human β defensin-2 (10 μg/ml) (panel E), or with 1 mg/ml human milk lysozyme (panel F). Bar = 0.5 micron. Panels G, H and I show the results of experiments S. pneumoniae 6B. Untreated bacteria are shown in panel G. Bacteria treated for 30 minutes with human β defensin-2 (10 μg/ml) are shown in panel H and those treated for 3 hours with human β defensin-1 (10 μg/ml) are shown in panel I. Bar = 0.5 micron. Panels J, K and L show experiments results with M. catarrhalis. Untreated bacteria are shown in panel J. Results of a 30-minute incubation with β defensin-2 are shown in panel K and those of a 30 minute treatment of the bacteria with lysozyme are shown in panel L. Bar = 0.5 micron.

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