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Table 2 HIV risk factors before and during incarceration of 689 male inmates, Bangkok Thailand, 2001 – 2002.

From: HIV infection and risk factors among Bangkok prisoners, Thailand: a prospective cohort study

Risk factors Risk before and during incarceration, Number (%)
  No/No Yes/No No/Yes Yes/Yes p-values
Heroin injection 338(49.1) 83(12.0) 80(11.6) 188 (27.3) <0.001
Injection risk among 351 heroin injectors      
- Sharing injection paraphernalia 18 (5.1) 74(21.1) 92(26.2) 167 (47.6) 0.007
- Presence of injection scar(s) on the body* 190 (54.1) 161(45.9)    
- Positive urine opiates* 273 (77.8) 78(22.2)    
- Having attended withdrawal clinics* 240 (63.4) 111(36.6)    
- Injection duration >7 years* 205 (58.4) 144(41.0)    
Presence of tattoos 228 (33.1) 127 (18.4) 168 (24.4) 166(24.1) 0.003
Sharing razor blades with others 150 (21.8) 31 (4.5) 211 (30.6) 297(43.1) <0.001
Ever receiving blood transfusion 635 (92.2) 51 (7.4) 1 (0.2) 2(0.3) 0.017**
Ever visiting prostitute* 128 (18.6) 561 (81.4)    
Having sex with non-wife women* 144 (20.9) 545 (79.1)    
Having sex without condom 21(3.8) 531(79.1) 7(1.0) 130(18.9) 0.652
Having sex with men 507(73.6) 40 (5.8) 78(11.3) 64 (9.3) <0.001
Having sexually transmitted diseases 393 (57.0) 288(41.8) 1 (0.2) 7 (1.0) 0.024**
  1. Note: No/No = Never, Yes/Yes = Continued into incarceration, Yes/No = Before incarceration only, No/Yes = Initiated during incarceration *These risk behaviors were ascertained at the time of enrolment. **Fisher's exact test