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Table 4 Factors related to smoking and alcohol use in relation to high anti-HHV-8 antibody titers*

From: Risk factors for high anti-HHV-8 antibody titers (≥1:51,200) in black, HIV-1 negative South African cancer patients: a case control study

Characteristic High titer/total pos (%)¥ aOR * 95%CI
Smoke cigarettes/pipes   
No§ 179/486 (36.8) 1.0
Past 96/233 (41.2) 1.12 (0.77–1.62)
Yes 46/128 (35.9) 1.00 (0.64–1.57)
Test of Homogeneity   χ2 (2df) = 0.43, p = 0.80
Use of snuff   
No§ 255/691 (36.9) 1.0
Past 22/57 (38.6) 0.97 (0.54–1.71)
Current 47/101 (46.5) 1.48 (0.95–2.30)
Test of Homogeneity   χ2 (2df) = 2.56, p = 0.11
Consumption of maize beer   
Never§ 277/761 (36.4) 1.0
Less than 1× week 18/50 (36.0) 0.92 (0.51–1.69)
More than 1× week 13/17 (76.5) 5.10 (1.64–15.87)
Most days 13/20 (65.0) 3.07 (1.19–7.90)
Test for Trend   χ2 = 9.49, p = 0.002
Consumption of sorghum beer   
Never§ 250/692 (36.1) 1.0
Less than 1× week 47/116 (40.5) 1.12 (0.74–1.70)
More than 1× week 15/25 (60.0) 2.46 (1.08–5.64)
Most days 7/13 (53.9) 1.93 (0.64–5.86)
Test for Trend   χ2 = 4.29, p = 0.04
Consumption of other homemade beer   
Never§ 249/636 (39.2) 1.0
Less than 1× week 43/151 (28.5) 0.52 (0.34–0.78)
More than 1× week 18/38 (47.4) 1.18 (0.60–2.31)
Most days 7/18 (38.9) 0.91 (0.34–2.41)
Test for Trend   χ2 = 1.46, p = 0.23
Consumption of homemade spirits   
Never§ 284/776 (36.6) 1.0
Less than 1× week 15/27 (55.6) 2.26 (1.03–5.00)
More than 1× week 4/8 (50.0) 1.60 (0.39–6.53)
Most days 13/25 (52.0) 2.05 (0.91–4.60)
Test for Trend   χ2 = 5.11, p = 0.02
Consumption of commercial beer   
Never§ 187/508 (36.8) 1.0
Less than 1× week 21/48 (43.8) 1.32 (0.72–2.43)
More than 1× week 38/81 (46.9) 1.35 (0.83–2.21)
Most days 74/211 (35.1) 0.85 (0.58–1.250
Test for Trend   χ2 = 0.24=, p = 0.63
Consumption of commercial spirits   
Never§ 257/680 (37.8) 1.0
Less than 1× week 29/82 (35.4) 0.85 (0.52–1.39)
More than 1× week 12/39 (30.8) 0.68 (0.33–1.41)
Most days 22/45 (48.9) 1.59 (0.85–2.99)
Test for Trend   χ2 = 0.37, p = 0.54
Consumption of wine   
Never§ 278/733 (37.9) 1.0
Less than 1× week 23/68 (33.8) 0.83 (0.49–1.41)
More than 1× week 3/6 (50.0) 1.58 (0.31–8.01)
Most days 13/27 (48.2) 1.63 (0.75–3.56)
Test for Trend   χ2 = 0.90, p = 0.34
Consumption of any alcohol   
No§ 162/432 (37.5) 1.0
Yes 159/416 (38.2) 0.94 (0.69–1.29)
Test of Homogeneity   χ2= 0.13, p = 0.72
Consumption of any maize or sorghum traditional beers   
No§ 245/682 (35.9) 1.0
Yes 75/166 (45.2) 1.37 (0.95–1.97)
Test of Homogeneity   χ2 = 2.85, p = 0.09
  1. * Adjusted for age category < 35, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, or ≥ 65 and sex. ¥ Data were not available for all patients for all variables. § These patients served as the reference group. All values were calculated with the χ2 test with 1 df unless noted otherwise.