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Table 1 Association of Candida colonization with host characteristics among 101 women with diabetes recruited from urban and suburban clinics (2000)

From: Prevalence and risk factors for vaginal Candidacolonization in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

  Not Colonized Colonized    
Characteristic Number Number OR 95% CI p-value
Diabetes Type      
Type 1 23 16 2.62 (0.99, 6.98) 0.03
Type 2 49 13    
Hemoglobin A 1c +      
Normal (4–6.4%) 17 3    
Abnormal (> 6.4%) 55 26 2.68 (0.68, 15.39) 0.13
Duration (miss = 5)      
< 5 years 24 9    
6–14 years 26 4 0.41 (0.08,1.74) 0.17
> 14 years 19 14 1.96 (0.63, 6.32) 0.20
Age      
18–44 24 7    
45–59 21 15 2.45 (0.75, 8.45) 0.10
60+ 27 7 0.89 (0.23, 3.46) 0.85
Race (miss = 1)      
White 38 13    
Black 32 15 1.37 (0.52, 3.64) 0.48
Asian 1 1 2.92 (0.03, 234.35) 0.44
Marital Status (miss = 6)      
Never married 11 6    
Married, living with spouse 30 12 0.73 (0.19,3.00) 0.61
Married, not living with 5 2 0.73 (0.05, 6.55) 0.75
spouse; and/or separated      
Widowed or divorced 22 7 0.58 (0.13,2.69) 0.42
Education (miss = 4)      
High school or less 25 6    
Vocational/Associate/ Some college 26 15 2.40 (0.72, 8.72) 0.11
Bachelor's degree and higher 19 6 1.32 (0.30, 5.78) 0.67
Employed (miss = 8)      
Not employed 30 15    
Part-time 14 3 0.43 (0.07., 1.91) 0.22
Full-time 22 9 0.82 (0.26, 2.44) 0.69
Insurance (miss = 10)      
No 0 3    
Yes 64 24 -- (0.0, 0.98) 0.02*
Antibiotics (oral only)      
None 65 20    
Taken in last two weeks 7 9 4.18 (1.19, 14.84) 0.01*
Lifetime history of Chlamydia (miss = 5)      
No 65 23    
Yes 3 5 4.71 (0.83,32.12) 0.04*
Douche (miss = 9)      
No 48 15    
Yes 17 12 2.26 (0.79, 6.37) 0.09
Oral sex in past 2 weeks (miss = 13)      
None 58 17    
Perform only 1 1 3.41 (0.04,272.31) 0.42*
Receive only 3 1 1.14 (0.02, 15.23) 1.00*
Perform and Receive 2 5 8.53 (1.22,93.93) 0.02*
Vaginal-penile sex in past 2 weeks (miss = 8)      
None 45 22    
Yes 15 11 1.50 (0.53,4.17) 0.39
  1. +Note: HbA1c calculated from a linear regression formula using total glycated hemoglobin values. Cut points based on local laboratory values. *2-tailed Fisher's Exact Test