Epstein-Barr virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-positive patients. Observational cross-sectional study
© Moroti-Constantinescu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Published: 29 May 2014
Different viruses are detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-positive patients, with controversial implications in central nervous system (CNS) impairment. Objectives: to evaluate the presence, frequency and associations of Epstein-Barr virus (EB) in the CSF in HIV-positive patients.
We retrospectively analyzed CSF samples from HIV-positive adult patients (≥18 years old), with or without CNS impairment, collected between Oct 2011 and Oct 2012 in a Romanian tertiary infectious diseases hospital.
We performed a multiplex PCR coupled with electrospray ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Abbott Molecular) which can simultaneously detect: herpesviruses (1-5 and 8), polyomaviruses, enteroviruses, adenoviruses and parvoviruses.
The patients were characterized based on the immunological and virological HIV status, neurological findings (including neuroimagery and CSF exam) and comorbidities.
A number of 55 patients were analyzed, with a mean age of 33.4 years (31.5 median) and a male:female ratio of 1.9:1. The CD4 count had a mean of 32 (75 median and IQR=225).
The most frequently detected virus was EB in 20/55 cases.
The EB-positive subgroup had a similar mean age of 33.5 years (median of 31.0) but a different male:female ratio, of 1.2:1. The CD4 count had a mean of 105.7 (59.5 median and IQR=156).
The following analyses refer to the EB-positive group: 17/20 patients had neurologic impairment. Imagery was performed in 15 cases and was normal in 5. CSF cellularity had a median of 2/cmm, IQR=10, CSF-glucose a median of 48.0 mg/dL, IQR=34 and CSF-protein a median of 55.5mg/dL, IQR=49.5.
In 8/20 cases EB was found as singular agent in the CSF and in 12/20 it was associated with other microorganisms: other herpesviruses (3 cases), JC virus (4 cases), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2 cases), Cryptococcus neoformans (2 cases) and Toxoplasma gondii (one case).
The CSF-HIV viral load was available in 12/20 cases, being detectable in 10 cases.
Regarding the neurological events (totalizing the neurological signs/symptoms, CSF exam and imagery), EB was probably causal in 4/20 cases, possibly causal in another 4/20 cases and was a bystander in 12/20 (3 cases with no impairment and 9 cases in which the impairments were strongly attributable to another germ).
EB is the most frequent agent found in the CSF (40% of HIV-positive cases), mainly in women. It can be mono-detected but it especially appears in multiple associations. In more than half of the cases EB acts as an innocent bystander.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.