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Table 1 Risk factors associated with overall HPV infection at baseline

From: A prospective study of age trends of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in rural China

Variables N (%) HPV positive, n (%) Univariate
OR (95% CI)
Age    p< 0.001
25-29 326 (4.4) 43 (13.2) 1.0
30-34 631 (8.5) 69 (10.9) 0.81 (0.54-1.21)
35-39 1330 (18.0) 153 (11.5) 0.86 (0.60-1.23)
40-44 1555 (21.0) 188 (12.1) 0.91 (0.64-1.29)
45-49 1425 (19.3) 172 (12.1) 0.90 (0.63-1.29)
50-54 906 (12.2) 126 (13.9) 1.06 (0.73-1.54)
55-59 846 (11.4) 163 (19.3) 1.57 (1.09-2.26)
60-65 378 (5.1) 55 (14.6) 1.12 (0.73-1.72)
Household income (Yuan) § p= 0.044
≤3000 2609 (35.4) 373 (14.3) 1.0
3001-5000 2254 (30.6) 268 (11.9) 0.81 (0.68-0.96)
≥5001 2502 (34.0) 323 (12.9) 0.89 (0.76-1.04)
Marital status    p< 0.001*
Married 7180 (97.1) 920 (12.8) 1.0
Others 217 (2.9) 49 (22.6) 1.99 (1.43-2.75)
Age at first menstruation period (years) § p= 0.007
≤14 2654 (35.9) 323 (12.2) 1.0
15-16 2686 (36.4) 336 (12.5) 1.03 (0.88-1.22)
≥17 2047 (27.7) 309 (15.1) 1.28 (1.09-1.52)
Age at first sexual intercourse (years) § p< 0.001*
≤19 1499 (20.3) 252 (16.8) 1.0
20-22 4022 (54.4) 487 (12.1) 0.68 (0.58-0.80)
≥23 1874 (25.3) 230 (12.3) 0.69 (0.57-0.84)
No. of lifetime sex partners § p= 0.001*
1 6460 (87.3) 815 (12.6) 1.0
≥2 936 (12.7) 154 (16.5) 1.36 (1.13-1.65)
No. of sex partners in the past 6 months p= 0.006
0 763 (10.3) 121 (15.9) 1.0
1 6553 (88.6) 831 (12.7) 0.77 (0.63-0.95)
≥2 81 (1.1) 17 (21.0) 1.41 (0.79-2.50)
Age at first pregnancy (years) § p= 0.001
≤20 1954 (26.6) 302 (15.5) 1.0
21-23 3553 (48.4) 427 (12.0) 0.75 (0.64-0.88)
≥24 1834 (25.0) 227 (12.4) 0.77 (0.64-0.93)
No. of live births § p< 0.001
0-2 5438 (73.5) 661 (12.2) 1.0
≥3 1958 (26.5) 307 (15.7) 1.34 (1.16-1.56)
Menopausal status §   p< 0.001*
No 5363 (72.5) 629 (11.7) 1.0
Yes 2033 (27.5) 339 (16.7) 1.51 (1.31-1.74)
  1. NOTE: *Risk factors of statistical significance in multivariate analysis which was adjusted for study sites, education levels and oral contraceptive history.§Missing values were excluded in the analysis. Bold type indicates statistical significance (p < 0.05). HPV = human papillomavirus; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval.