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Table 9 Multivariate predictors of influenza infection

From: Asymptomatic ratio for seasonal H1N1 influenza infection among schoolchildren in Taiwan

Grade Symptom PPV NPV Sensitivity Specificity
1-3 Fever 63.0 (52.6-72.4) 77.8 (66.5-86.1) 74.4 (57.9-87.0) 67.3 (52.9-79.7)
  Fever + cough 67.7 (54.1-78.8) 73.5 (63.6-81.5) 63.9 (46.2-79.2) 76.6 (62.0-87.7)
  Fever + headache 72.7 (53.9-85.9) 69.1 (61.1-76.1) 48.5 (30.8-66.5) 86.4 (72.6-94.8)
  Fever + vomiting 63.6 (50.9-74.7) 77.8 (65.2-86.7) 72.4 (52.8-87.3) 70.0 (53.5-83.4)
  Fever + cough + vomiting 69.0 (54.4-80.6) 76.9 (65.4-85.5) 69.0 (49.2-84.7) 76.9 (60.7-88.9)
  Fever + cough + headache 63.9 (51.8-74.5) 79.0 (66.7-87.5) 74.2 (55.4-88.1) 69.8 (53.9-82.8)
  Fever + cough + vomiting + headache 70.4 (55.1-82.1) 81.1 (69.0-89.2) 73.1 (52.2-88.4) 79.0 (62.7-90.4)
  Fever + cough + vomiting + sore throat 66.7 (52.8-78.2) 77.8 (65.4-86.6) 71.4 (51.3-86.8) 73.7 (56.9-86.6)
4-6 Fever 55.8 (43.8-67.2) 83.8 (78.1-88.3) 58.5 (42.1-73.7) 82.3 (73.7-89.0)
  Fever + cough 53.6 (38.0-68.5) 80.6 (75.5-84.8) 42.9 (76.3-60.6) 86.5 (78.0-92.6)
  Fever + headache 73.3 (48.8-88.8) 81.3 (76.3-85.5) 39.3 (21.5-59.4) 94.9 (87.4-98.6)
  Fever + vomiting 85.7 (43.2-97.9) 79.6 (75.5-83.1) 25.0 (9.8-46.7) 98.6 (92.4-100)
  Fever + headache + vomiting 83.3 (54.2-95.5) 84.2 (78.4-88.7) 45.5 (24.4-67.8) 97.0 (89.5-99.6)
  Fever + headache + sore throat 79.0 (57.8-91.1) 86.8 (80.6-91.1) 57.7 (36.9-76.6) 94.7 (87.1-98.5)
  1. PPV, NPV, Sensitivity, and Specificity Analyses for Schoolchildren are stratified by grade with 95% confidence intervals (in parenthesis).