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Table 2 Potential risk factors associated with Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B infections among Orang Asli (univariate analysis, n = 611)

From: Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis among Orang Asli in Malaysia: application of the triosephosphate isomerase gene

  Assemblage A Assemblage B
Variables No. examined % Infected OR (95% CI) P-value No. examined % Infected OR (95% CI) P-value
Age (years)         
  <15 277 10.1 0.99 (0.759, 1.68) 0.977 277 8.3 2.23 (1.11, 4.50) 0.021a
  ≥15 334 10.2 1   334 3.9 1  
Gender         
  Male 266 12.0 1.44 (0.85, 2.43) 0.176 266 6.4 1.17 (0.60, 2.30) 0.646
  Female 345 8.7 1   345 5.5 1  
Drinking untreated water         
  Yes 233 13.3 1.72 (1.01, 2.91) 0.042a 233 8.2 1.89 (0.96, 3.71) 0.062
  No 378 8.2 1   378 4.5 1  
Bathing and washing in the river         
  Yes 175 7.4 0.63 (0.34, 1.20) 0.159 175 8.0 1.64 (0.82, 3.28) 0.161
  No 436 11.2 1   436 5.0 1  
Not washing hands after playing with soil or gardening         
  Yes 215 10.7 1.10 (0.64, 1.89) 0.740 215 10.7 1.10 (0.64, 1.89) 0.740
  No 396 9.8 1   396 9.8 1  
Close contact with household pets         
  Yes 341 13.8 2.72 (1.48, 4.98) 0.001a 341 7.0 1.63 (0.80, 3.32) 0.176
  No 270 5.6 1   270 4.4 1  
  Assemblage A Assemblage B
Variables No. examined % Infected OR (95% CI) P -value No. examined % Infected OR (95% CI) P -value
Indiscriminate defecation         
  Yes 205 10.7 1.10 (0.64, 1.91) 0.734 205 7.3 1.45 (0.73,2.87) 0.288
  No 406 9.9 1   406 5.2 1  
Sewage disposal         
  Outdoor 264 10.2 1.01 (0.60, 1.73) 0.954 264 7.6 1.70 (0.86, 3.34) 0.123
  Common drainage 347 10.1 1   347 4.6 1  
Eating with hands         
  Yes 390 9.2 0.76 (0.45, 1.30) 0.319 390 6.7 1.51 (0.71, 3.19) 0.280
  No 221 11.8 1   221 4.5 1  
Consuming raw vegetables         
  Yes 287 11.8 1.42 (0.84, 2.41) 0.190 287 9.1 3.13 (1.48, 6.61) 0.002a
  No 324 8.6 1   324 3.1 1  
Eating fresh fruits         
  Yes 470 10.4 1.15 (0.60, 2.18) 0.678 470 7.0 3.47 (1.05, 11.50) 0.030a
  No 141 9.2 1   141 2.1 1  
Father’s education         
  Non-educated (<6 yrs) 253 9.9 1.02 (0.48, 2.15) 0.965 253 4.3 0.98 (0.33, 2.90) 0.973
  Educated (>6 yrs) 113 9.7 1   113 4.4 1  
Mother’s education         
  Non-educated (<6 yrs) 250 10.8 1.44 (0.65, 3.17) 0.363 250 4.0 0.76 (0.27, 2.16) 0.610
  Educated (>6 yrs) 116 7.8 1   116 5.2 1  
Non working mother         
  Yes 157 10.8 1.21 (0.61, 2.42) 0.581 157 7.0 3.07 (1.05, 9.04) 0.033a
  No 209 9.1 1   209 2.4 1  
  Assemblage A Assemblage B
Variables No. examined % Infected OR (95% CI) P -value No. examined % Infected OR (95% CI) P -value
Household members         
  ≥8 216 11.1 1.17 (0.68, 2.02) 0.560 216 6.5 1.18 (0.59, 2.35) 0.647
  <8 395 9.6 1   395 5.6 1  
Household monthly incomeb         
  ≤RM500 315 10.2 1.00 (0.59, 1.70) 0.992 315 7.3 1.72 (0.85, 3.45) 0.127
  >RM500 296 10.1 1   296 4.4 1  
Other family members infected with giardiasis         
  Yes 142 14.1 1.67 (0.94, 2.95) 0.076 142 16.9 7.75 (3.76, 15.94) <0.001a
  No 469 9.0 1   469 2.6 1  
  1. CI = Confidence interval.
  2. OR = Odds ratio, Reference group marked as OR = 1.
  3. aSignificant association (P < 0.05).
  4. bRM = Malaysian Ringgit; ≤US$ 156.02 (10th December 2013).