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Table 4 Multivariate analyses of independent risk factors for inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment*

From: Clinical implications for patients treated inappropriately for community-acquired pneumonia in the emergency department

Variable Adjusted odds ratio 95% CI P value
Long-term care resident 9.05 3.93 – 20.84 0.008
Antibiotic exposure in previous 30 days 1.85 1.35 – 2.52 0.049
COPD 2.05 1.52 – 2.78 0.018
  1. *Other covariates not in the table had a p value >0.05 including previous hospitalization, mechanical ventilation or mask ventilation, CURB65 score, Charlson score, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, and ICU admission (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, p = 0.726). ICU = intensive care unit; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CURB65 = confusion of new onset, urea greater than 7 mmol/l, respiratory rate of 30 breaths per minute or greater, blood pressure less than 90 mmHg systolic or diastolic blood pressure 60 mmHg or less, age 65 or older.