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Table 2 Travel-associated risk factors for colonization: univariate and multivariate logistic regression model

From: High colonization rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coliin Swiss Travellers to South Asia– a prospective observational multicentre cohort study looking at epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors

  OR (95% CI) p-valuea adjusted ORb(95% CI) p-valuea
Destination India 1   1  
Bhutan 0.56 (0.13-2.40) 0.434 0.66 (0.13-3.30) 0.615
Nepal 0.59 (0.21-1.68) 0.325 0.57 (0.17-1.88) 0.355
Sri Lanka 0.08 (0.03-0.20) < 0.001 0.05 (0.02-0.16) < 0.001
Age 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 0.722   
Sex Female 1.00    
Male 0.99 (0.52-1.92) 0.984   
Length of Stay (per week) 1.26 (0.88-1.80) 0.215 2.08 0.010
Weight 1.01 (0.99-1.03) 0.416   
Travel Reason Tourist 1   1  
Business 2.07 (0.72-5.98) 0.179 1.58 (0.44-5.71) 0.483
VFR 3.11 (1.11-8.68) 0.031 3.86 (1.02-14.59) 0.046
Sleeping Place Hotel 1    
Guest House 0.81 (0.40-1.64) 0.560   
Private Household 3.35 (0.71-15.76) 0.126   
Other 0.74 (0.16-3.36) 0.701   
Eating Place Restaurant 1    
Private 0.92 (0.40-2.12) 0.837   
Daily Alcohol No 1    
Yes 0.70 (0.34-1.45) 0.335   
Tap Water Consumption No 1   1  
Yes 0.52 (0.21-1.28) 0.154 0.27 (0.08-0.87) 0.029
Dairy Products No 1    
Yes 2.32 (0.92-5.86) 0.076   
Fruits No 1    
Yes 1.36 (0.51-3.67) 0.539   
Salad No 1    
Yes 0.59 (0.30-1.16) 0.126   
Ice Cream and Pastry No 1   1  
Yes 1.99 (1.03-3.85) 0.042 3.90 (1.61-9.43) 0.002
Meat No 1    
Yes 0.44 (0.17-1.14) 0.091   
Travellers’ Diarrhoea No 1    
Yes 1.65 (0.81-3.33) 0.166   
PPI No 1    
Yes 0.88 (0.16-4.95) 0.880   
  1. Note: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  2. aderived by Wald test.
  3. badjusted for the other covariates.