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Table 1 Demographic data and travel associated risk factors analysed

From: High colonization rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coliin Swiss Travellers to South Asia– a prospective observational multicentre cohort study looking at epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors

  Totala Neg-to-Posa,b Neg-to-Nega,c p-valued
Travellers 170 (100.0) 118 (69.4) 52 (30.6)  
Destination India 68 (40.0) 59 (86.8) 9 (13.2) <0.001
Bhutan 14 (8.2) 11 (78.6) 3 (21.4)
Nepal 39 (22.9) 31 (79.5) 8 (20.5)
Sri Lanka 49 (28.9) 17 (34.7) 32 (65.3)
Age (yrs, median, IQR) 41 (30–53) 41 (30–53) 40 (29–52) 0.899
Sex Female 95 (55.9) 66 (55.9) 29 (55.8) 0.984
Male 75 (44.1) 52 (44.1) 23 (44.2)
Length of stay < 2 weeks 34 (20.0) 21 (61.8) 13 (38.2) 0.548
2-3 weeks 75 (44.1) 53 (70.7) 22 (29.3)
> 3 weeks 61 (35.9) 44 (72.1) 17 (27.9)
Weight (kg, median, IQR) 70 (58–78) 70 (59–78) 70 (57–78) 0.685
Travel Reason Tourist 115 (67.7) 73 (61.9) 42 (80.8) 0.047
Business 23 (13.5) 18 (15.3) 5 (9.6)
VFR 32 (18.8) 27 (22.9) 5 (9.6)
Sleeping Place Hotel 81 (48.2) 56 (48.3) 25 (48.1) 0.298
Guest House 62 (36.9) 40 (34.5) 22 (42.3)
Private Household 17 (10.1) 15 (12.9) 2 (3.9)
Other 8 (4.8) 5 (4.3) 3 (5.7)
Eating Place Restaurant 135 (81.3) 94 (81.7) 41 (80.4) 0.837
Private 31 (18.7) 21 (18.3) 10 (19.6)
Daily Alcohol No 126 (74.1) 90 (76.3) 36 (69.2) 0.334
Yes 44 (25.9) 28 (23.7) 16 (30.8)
Tap Water Consumption No 101 (59.4) 77 (65.2) 24 (46.2) 0.019
Yes 69 (40.6) 41 (34.8) 28 (53.8)
Dairy Products No 21 (12.3) 11 (9.3) 10 (19.2) 0.070
Yes 149 (87.7) 107 (90.7) 42 (80.8)
Fruits No 144 (85.7) 99 (84.6) 45 (88.2) 0.538
Yes 24 (14.3) 18 (15.4) 6 (11.8)
Salad No 70 (41.4) 53 (45.3) 17 (32.7) 0.125
Yes 99 (58.6) 64 (54.7) 35 (67.3)
Ice Cream and Pastry No 78 (45.9) 48 (40.7) 30 (57.7) 0.040
Yes 92 (54.1) 70 (59.3) 22 (42.3)
Meat No 33 (19.4) 27 (81.8) 6 (18.2) 0.085
Yes 137 (80.6) 91 (66.4) 46 (33.6)
Travellers’ Diarrhoea No 106 (62.7) 70 (59.3) 36 (70.6) 0.164
Yes 63 (37.3) 48 (40.7) 15 (29.4)
PPI No 164 (96.5) 114 (96.6) 50 (96.1) 0.882
Yes 6 (3.5) 4 (3.4) 2 (3.9)
  1. Note. IQR, interquartile range; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; VFR, visiting friends and relatives.
  2. aData are presented as numbers and (%) if not otherwise indicated.
  3. bNeg-to-Pos, people non-colonized before the trip and colonized with ESBL-Ent immediately after they return.
  4. cNeg-to-Neg, people non-colonized before and after the trip to South Asia.
  5. dDerived by Pearson’s χ2-test or Student’s t-test/Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney test.