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Table 2 Self-reported acute respiratory tract infection and influenza-like illness rate ratios by hand-washing habits with 95% confidence intervals

From: Associations of hand-washing frequency with incidence of acute respiratory tract infection and influenza-like illness in adults: a population-based study in Sweden

  Acute respiratory tract infection Influenza-like illness
Hand-washing frequency Crude Adjusted1 Crude Adjusted2
2-4 times daily 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
5-9 times daily 1.14 (0.93-1.40) 1.08 (0.87-1.33) 1.10 (0.75-1.59) 0.98 (0.66-1.46)
10-19 times daily 1.37 (1.11-1.69) 1.22 (0.97-1.53) 1.48 (1.01-2.16) 1.25 (0.82-1.90)
≥20 times daily 1.16 (0.93-1.45) 1.03 (0.81-1.32) 1.23 (0.82-1.85) 1.06 (0.68-1.67)
  1. 1adjusted for age, vaccination status, gender, educational level, occupational status, household size, overall and child contact.
  2. 2adjusted for age, gender, educational level, vaccination status, household size, overall and child contact.